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June 9, 2020

Isaiah – 06.09.20

Filed under: Old & New Testament — Adam Osborne @ 10:00 pm

Isaiah

Chapters


1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 |
16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 |

    Introduction

  • name means “the Lord shall save”
  • 740–698
  • From Jerusalem
  • Basic bible passages = 2 Kings, Chapters 19 and 20; book of Isaiah.
  • Central teaching is “hope through repentance and suffering”
  • He warned that the sin of the people of Judah would bring God’s judgment, yet he also declared that God is sovereign and would use Cyrus the Persian to return them from exile
  • Key verses are 1:18 and 53:4-6
  • Isaiah 37:38 suggests that the prophet lived until the death of Sennacherib in 681 BC
  • New Testament books quote Isaiah more than any other Old Testament books.
  • Isaiah son of Amoz
  • Prophecy activity spanned the reigns of four kings of Judah:
    • Uzziah (783–742 BC, Isaiah’s call is dated to this king’s last year, 6:1); see 2Kg 15:1–7; 2Ch 26:1–23.
    • Jotham (742–735 BC); see Kg 15:32–38; 2Ch 27:1–9.
    • Ahaz (735–716 BC); see 2Kg 16:1–20; 2Ch 28:1–27.
    • and Hezekiah (716–686 BC); see 2Kg 18:1–20:21; 2Ch 29:1–32:33.
  • Babylonian Empire pictures on the web.
  • Assyrian Empire pictures on the web.

CSB STUDY NOTES:

  • Isaiah’s message is relatively simple. First, Isaiah accused God’s people of sin: rebelling against the one who made them and redeemed them. Second, Isaiah instructed these sinners to reform their ways and act obediently. Third, Isaiah announced God’s judgment on the people because of their sin. Finally, God revealed his future restoration of the people, or at least of the faithful remnant that survived the judgment. As part of the restoration of God’s people, Isaiah foresaw both judgment on the nations (chaps. 13–23) and a future turning of the nations to God (2:1–4). The first part of the book (chaps. 1–39) emphasizes sin, the call to repentance, and judgment; the second part (chaps. 40–66) emphasizes the hope of restoration.
  • FUTURE ANOINTED KING:
    • Messiah, 9:1–7; 11:1–9
    • servant 42:1–9; 49:1–6; 50:4–6; 52:13–53:12

TIMELINE:

    750–725 BC

  • Death of King Uzziah of Judah 740
  • Isaiah’s call to be a prophet 740
  • Tiglath-pileser III’s invasions of Israel 734–732
  • Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Damascus form a mutual defense alliance against Assyria and invite Ahaz of Judah to join them. 734
  • Ahaz refuses Isaiah’s counsel and seeks protection from Assyria by paying tribute to them, creating a heavy financial burden on Judah for years to come. 734
  • Alliance between Syria and Israel collapses with the fall of Damascus (732) and the fall of Samaria. 722
    725–700 BC

  • Hezekiah of Judah initiates reforms and shows resistance to Assyria. 715–701
  • Hezekiah prepares for war against Assyria, strengthens Jerusalem’s defenses, and receives Merodach-baladan’s envoys from Babylon. 705–701
  • Sennacherib of Assyria defeats the Phoenicians, Philistines, and Egyptians; destroys most cities in Judah; and besieges Jerusalem. 701
  • God delivers Jerusalem from the Assyrian forces. 701
    700–600 BC

  • Manasseh succeeds his father Hezekiah as king of Judah. 687
  • Ashurbanipal (668–631) rules over a declining Assyrian Empire that experiences revolts in 642, contributed to the assassination of Amon of Judah (641) and the rise of his son Josiah (641–609).
  • Josiah killed by the Egyptians at Megiddo 609
  • Babylonians defeat Pharaoh Neco of Egypt at Carchemish. 605
    600–500 BC

  • Babylonians attack Jerusalem and take citizens of Judah into exile. 605, 597, 586
  • Cyrus captures Babylon without resistance. 539
  • Cyrus issues a decree allowing the Jews to return to Judah. 538
  • Work begins on rebuilding the temple in Jerusalem. 536–537
  • Renewed work on the temple 520–518
  • New temple dedicated 515

OUTLINE:

    I. Rebuke and Promise from the Lord (1:1–6:13)

  • A. Rebellion met with judgment and grace (1:1–31)
  • B. Chastisement will bring future glory (2:1–4:6)
  • C. Judgment and exile for the nation (5:1–30)
  • D. Isaiah cleansed and commissioned (6:1–13)
    II. The Promise of Immanuel (7:1–12:6)

  • A. Immanuel rejected by worldly wisdom (7:1–25)
  • B. God’s deliverance and the coming Deliverer (8:1–9:7)
  • C. Exile is coming for proud Samaria (9:8–10:4)
  • D. Promise of a future glorious empire (10:5–12:6)
    III. Coming Judgment upon the Nations (13:1–23:18)

  • A. Babylon (13:1–14:23)
  • B. Assyria (14:24–27)
  • C. Philistia (14:28–32)
  • D. Moab (15:1–16:14)
  • E. Damascus and Syria (17:1–3)
  • F. Israel (17:4–14)
  • G. Cush (18:1–7)
  • H. Egypt (19:1–20:6)
  • I. Babylon, additional judgment (21:1–10)
  • J. Dumah (21:11–12)
  • K. Arabia (21:13–17)
  • L. Jerusalem (22:1–25)
  • M. Tyre (23:1–18)
    IV. First Cycle of General Judgment and Promise (24:1–27:13)

  • A. Universal judgment for universal sin (24:1–23)
  • B. Praise to the Lord as Deliverer (25:1–12)
  • C. A song of comfort for Judah (26:1–21)
  • D. Promise of preservation for God’s people (27:1–13)
    V. Woes upon the Unbelievers of Israel (28:1–33:24)

  • A. God’s dealings with drunkards and scoffers (28:1–29)
  • B. Judgment for those who try to deceive God (29:1–24)
  • C. Confidence in man vs. confidence in God (30:1–33)
  • D. Deliverance through God’s intervention (31:1–32:20)
  • E. Punishment of deceivers and triumph of Christ (33:1–24)
    VI. Second Cycle of General Judgment and Promise (34:1–39:8)

  • A. Destruction of the Gentile world powers (34:1–17)
  • B. The ultimate bliss of God’s redeemed (35:1–10)
  • C. Deliverance for King Hezekiah (36:1–39:8)
    VII. Comfort for God’s People (40:1–66:24)

  • A. The purpose of peace (40:1–48:22)
  • B. The Prince of Peace (49:1–57:21)
  • C. The program of peace (58:1–66:24)

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Chapter 1

1 The vision concerning Judah and Jerusalem that Isaiah son of Amoz saw during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

  • Numbers 12:6 And he said, “Hear my words: If there is a prophet among you, I the LORD make myself known to him in a vision; I speak with him in a dream.


A Rebellious Nation

2 Hear me, you heavens! Listen, earth!
For the Lord has spoken:
“I reared children and brought them up,
but they have rebelled against me.

  • Jeremiah 2:12 Be appalled, O heavens, at this; be shocked, be utterly desolate, declares the LORD,
  • Deuteronomy 32:1 “Give ear, O heavens, and I will speak, and let the earth hear the words of my mouth.
  • Lord—Jehovah; in Hebrew, “the self-existing and promise-fulfilling, unchangeable One.” The Jews never pronounced this holy name. but substituted Adonai.

3 The ox knows its master,
the donkey its owner’s manger,
but Israel does not know,
my people do not understand.”

  • Jer 8:7 Even the stork in the heavens knows her times, and the turtledove, swallow, and crane keep the time of their coming, but my people know not the rules of the LORD.
  • Jer 9:3 They bend their tongue like a bow; falsehood and not truth has grown strong in the land; for they proceed from evil to evil, and they do not know me, declares the LORD.

4. Oh sinful nation,
people weighed down with iniquity,
brood of evildoers,
depraved children!
They have abandoned the LORD;
they have despised the Holy One of Israel;
they have turned their backs on him.

  • Mat 3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, “You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
  • The opening Oh marks the beginning of what is commonly called a “woe oracle.” This literary form derives from funeral processions and often signifies the sense that the object of the Oh—in this case the sinful nation (Judah)—is as good as dead.

5 Why do you want more beatings?
Why do you keep on rebelling?
The whole head is hurt,
and the whole heart is sick.

  • Isa 9:13 The people did not turn to him who struck them, nor inquire of the LORD of hosts.

6 From the sole of the foot even to the head,
no spot is uninjured—
wounds, welts, and festering sores
not cleansed, bandaged,
or soothed with oil.
7 Your country is desolate,
your cities burned with fire;
your fields are being stripped by foreigners
right before you,
laid waste as when overthrown by strangers.
Daughter Zion is abandoned
like a shelter in a vineyard,
like a shack in a cucumber field,
like a besieged city.

  • Job 27:18 He builds his house like a moth’s, like a booth that a watchman makes.
  • daughter of Zion—the city, Jerusalem and its inhabitants. The idea of youthful beauty is included in “daughter.”

9 If the LORD of Armies
had not left us a few survivors,
we would be like Sodom,
we would resemble Gomorrah.

  • Lam 3:22 The steadfast love of the LORD never ceases; his mercies never come to an end;

10 Hear the word of the Lord,
you rulers of Sodom;
listen to the instruction of our God,
you people of Gomorrah!

  • Deu 32:32 For their vine comes from the vine of Sodom and from the fields of Gomorrah; their grapes are grapes of poison; their clusters are bitter;

11 “The multitude of your sacrifices—
what are they to me?” says the Lord.
“I have more than enough of burnt offerings,
of rams and the fat of fattened animals;
I have no pleasure
in the blood of bulls and lambs and goats.

  • 1Sa 15:22 And Samuel said, “Has the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to listen than the fat of rams.
  • CSB Study Notes:God commanded his people to offer sacrifices (Lv 1–7; burnt offerings are specifically described in Lv 1), but the sacrifices of his people were reprehensible to him. They were not offered with pure motives of sincere repentance. Rather, they were offered with “hands covered with blood” (Is 1:15).

12 When you come to appear before me,
who has asked this of you,
this trampling of my courts?

Exo 23:17 Three times in the year shall all your males appear before the Lord GOD.

13 Stop bringing meaningless offerings!
Your incense is detestable to me.
New Moons, Sabbaths and convocations—
I cannot bear your worthless assemblies.

  • Mat 15:9 in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.'”
  • Joe 1:14 Consecrate a fast; call a solemn assembly. Gather the elders and all the inhabitants of the land to the house of the LORD your God, and cry out to the LORD.
  • incense—put upon the sacrifices, and burnt on the altar of incense. Type of prayer (Ps 141:2; Rev 8:3).
    • Psa 141:2 Let my prayer be counted as incense before you, and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice!
    • Rev 8:3 And another angel came and stood at the altar with a golden censer, and he was given much incense to offer with the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar before the throne,

14 Your New Moon feasts and your appointed festivals
I hate with all my being.
They have become a burden to me;
I am weary of bearing them.

  • Num 28:11 “At the beginnings of your months, you shall offer a burnt offering to the LORD: two bulls from the herd, one ram, seven male lambs a year old without blemish;
  • Lam 2:6 He has laid waste his booth like a garden, laid in ruins his meeting place; the LORD has made Zion forget festival and Sabbath, and in his fierce indignation has spurned king and priest.
  • new moons—observed as festivals (Nu 10:10) with sacrifices and blowing of silver trumpets.
    • Num 10:10 On the day of your gladness also, and at your appointed feasts and at the beginnings of your months, you shall blow the trumpets over your burnt offerings and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings. They shall be a reminder of you before your God: I am the LORD your God.”

15 When you spread out your hands in prayer,
I hide my eyes from you;
even when you offer many prayers,
I am not listening.
Your hands are full of blood!

  • Pro 1:28 Then they will call upon me, but I will not answer; they will seek me diligently but will not find me.
  • Psa 66:18 If I had cherished iniquity in my heart, the Lord would not have listened.

16 Wash and make yourselves clean.
Take your evil deeds out of my sight;
stop doing wrong.

  • Jer 4:14 O Jerusalem, wash your heart from evil, that you may be saved. How long shall your wicked thoughts lodge within you?
  • Rom 12:9 Let love be genuine. Abhor what is evil; hold fast to what is good.

17 Learn to do right; seek justice.
Defend the oppressed.[a]
Take up the cause of the fatherless;
plead the case of the widow.

18 “Come now, let us settle the matter,”
says the Lord.
“Though your sins are like scarlet,
they shall be as white as snow;
though they are red as crimson,
they shall be like wool.

  • Psa 51:7 Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.

19 If you are willing and obedient,
you will eat the good things of the land;
20 but if you resist and rebel,
you will be devoured by the sword.”
For the mouth of the Lord has spoken.

  • Tit 1:2 in hope of eternal life, which God, who never lies, promised before the ages began

21 See how the faithful city
has become a prostitute!
She once was full of justice;
righteousness used to dwell in her—
but now murderers!

  • Jer 2:20 “For long ago I broke your yoke and burst your bonds; but you said, ‘I will not serve.’ Yes, on every high hill and under every green tree you bowed down like a whore.

22 Your silver has become dross,
your choice wine is diluted with water.

  • Jer 6:8 Be warned, O Jerusalem, lest I turn from you in disgust, lest I make you a desolation, an uninhabited land.”

23 Your rulers are rebels,
partners with thieves;
they all love bribes
and chase after gifts.
They do not defend the cause of the fatherless;
the widow’s case does not come before them.

  • Hos 9:15 Every evil of theirs is in Gilgal; there I began to hate them. Because of the wickedness of their deeds I will drive them out of my house. I will love them no more; all their princes are rebels.
  • Pro 29:24 The partner of a thief hates his own life; he hears the curse, but discloses nothing.
  • Jer 22:17 But you have eyes and heart only for your dishonest gain, for shedding innocent blood, and for practicing oppression and violence.”
  • Jer 5:28 they have grown fat and sleek. They know no bounds in deeds of evil; they judge not with justice the cause of the fatherless, to make it prosper, and they do not defend the rights of the needy.

24 Therefore the Lord, the Lord Almighty,
the Mighty One of Israel, declares:
“Ah! I will vent my wrath on my foes
and avenge myself on my enemies.

  • Deu 28:63 And as the LORD took delight in doing you good and multiplying you, so the LORD will take delight in bringing ruin upon you and destroying you. And you shall be plucked off the land that you are entering to take possession of it.

25 I will turn my hand against you;[b]
I will thoroughly purge away your dross
and remove all your impurities.

  • Mal 3:3 He will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and he will purify the sons of Levi and refine them like gold and silver, and they will bring offerings in righteousness to the LORD.

26 I will restore your leaders as in days of old,
your rulers as at the beginning.
Afterward you will be called
the City of Righteousness,
the Faithful City.”

  • Jer 33:7 I will restore the fortunes of Judah and the fortunes of Israel, and rebuild them as they were at first.
  • Zec 8:3 Thus says the LORD: I have returned to Zion and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem, and Jerusalem shall be called the faithful city, and the mountain of the LORD of hosts, the holy mountain.

27 Zion will be delivered with justice,
her penitent ones with righteousness.
28 But rebels and sinners will both be broken,
and those who forsake the Lord will perish.

  • Job 31:3 Is not calamity for the unrighteous, and disaster for the workers of iniquity?

29 “You will be ashamed because of the sacred oaks
in which you have delighted;
you will be disgraced because of the gardens
that you have chosen.

30 You will be like an oak with fading leaves,
like a garden without water.

31 The mighty man will become tinder
and his work a spark;
both will burn together,
with no one to quench the fire.”

  • Eze 32:21 The mighty chiefs shall speak of them, with their helpers, out of the midst of Sheol: ‘They have come down, they lie still, the uncircumcised, slain by the sword.’

Chapter 2

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The Mountain of the Lord

1 This is what Isaiah son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem:

  • Amos 1:1 (ESV) 1 The words of Amos, who was among the shepherds of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel, two years before the earthquake.
  • Micah 1:1 (ESV) 1 The word of the LORD that came to Micah of Moresheth in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem.

2 In the last days
the mountain of the Lord’s temple will be established
as the highest of the mountains;
it will be exalted above the hills,
and all nations will stream to it.

  • The phrase last days refers to the future, a time beyond the judgment on the sin of God’s people.
  • The mountain of the LORD’s house is a reference to Zion, where the temple was built. Zion was where God made his presence known in a special way among his people.
  • Mic 4:1 It shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the house of the LORD shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and it shall be lifted up above the hills; and peoples shall flow to it,
  • Gen 49:1 Then Jacob called his sons and said, “Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you what shall happen to you in days to come.
  • Ps 68:15 O mountain of God, mountain of Bashan; O many-peaked mountain, mountain of Bashan!
  • Shall flow unto it – This is a figurative expression, denoting that they would be converted to the true religion. It indicates that they would come in multitudes, like the flowing of a mighty river.

3 Many peoples will come and say,
Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord,
to the temple of the God of Jacob.
He will teach us his ways,
so that we may walk in his paths.”
The law will go out from Zion,
the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

  • Luke 24:47 and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem.
  • And many people shall go – This denotes a prevalent “desire” to turn to the true God, and embrace the true religion.
  • ALBERT BARNES: For out of Zion – These are the words of the “prophet,” not of the people. The prophet declares that the law would go from Zion; that is, Zion would be the center from which it would be spread abroad; see the note at Isa 1:8. Zion is put here for Jerusalem, and means that the message of mercy to mankind would be spread “from” Jerusalem. Hence, the Messiah commanded his disciples to tarry ‘in Jerusalem until they should be endued with power from on high.’ Luk 24:49. Hence, also, he said that repentance and remission of sins should ‘be preached among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem’ – perhaps referring to this very passage in Isaiah; Luk 24:47.

4 He will judge between the nations
and will settle disputes for many peoples.
They will beat their swords into plowshares
and their spears into pruning hooks.
Nation will not take up sword against nation,
nor will they train for war anymore.

  • The nation seeking the Lord will experience a great transformation. They will not exert their energies and resources to destruction (swords … spears), but rather to productive activities (plows … pruning knives).

5 Come, descendants of Jacob,
let us walk in the light of the Lord.
The Day of the Lord

  • Eph 5:8 for at one time you were darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light

6 You, Lord, have abandoned your people,
the descendants of Jacob.
They are full of superstitions from the East;
they practice divination like the Philistines
and embrace pagan customs.

  • Num 23:7 And Balaam took up his discourse and said, “From Aram Balak has brought me, the king of Moab from the eastern mountains: ‘Come, curse Jacob for me, and come, denounce Israel!’
  • Deu 18:14 for these nations, which you are about to dispossess, listen to fortune-tellers and to diviners. But as for you, the LORD your God has not allowed you to do this.
  • Psa 106:35 but they mixed with the nations and learned to do as they did.

7 Their land is full of silver and gold;
there is no end to their treasures.
Their land is full of horses;
there is no end to their chariots.

  • Deu 17:16 Only he must not acquire many horses for himself or cause the people to return to Egypt in order to acquire many horses, since the LORD has said to you, ‘You shall never return that way again.’

8 Their land is full of idols;
they bow down to the work of their hands,
to what their fingers have made.

  • Rom 1:23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things.
  • Jer 2:28 But where are your gods that you made for yourself? Let them arise, if they can save you, in your time of trouble; for as many as your cities are your gods, O Judah.

9 So people will be brought low
and everyone humbled—
do not forgive them.

    shaphel

  • Hebrew pronunciation [shah FAIL]
  • CSB translation be low, humbled
  • Uses in Isaiah 15
  • Uses in the OT 30
  • Focus passage Isaiah 2:9, 11, 17

Isaiah has half the uses of shaphel, which means be lowly (Pr 16:19) or sink (Is 32:19). People are humbled (Is 2:9) or brought down (Is 29:4). Trees are felled (Is 10:33) and mountains leveled (Is 40:4). Causative verbs mean humiliate (Jb 40:11), humble (Pr 29:23), demote (Pr 25:7), bring down or low (Is 25:11–12), stoop down (Ps 113:6), and send down (Is 57:9). Shephelah (20×) is the name for the Judean foothills (Jos 9:1). The adjective shaphal (17×) denotes low (Ezk 17:6), lowly (Is 57:15), humble (Ezk 17:14), or humiliated (Mal 2:9). Once it is lowliest (Ezk 29:15). The phrase “lower than” is translated beneath (Lv 13:20). The noun shephel means humiliation (Ps 136:23) or lowly position (Ec 10:6). Shiphlah, meaning depths, occurs with the verb shaphel (Is 32:19). “Lowness (shiphlut) of hands” suggests negligent hands hanging down (Ec 10:18). The adjective shaphel implies humbled (Is 2:12).
Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1045). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

10 Go into the rocks, hide in the ground
from the fearful presence of the Lord
and the splendor of his majesty!

  • Rev 6:15 Then the kings of the earth and the great ones and the generals and the rich and the powerful, and everyone, slave and free, hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains,

11 The eyes of the arrogant will be humbled
and human pride brought low;
the Lord alone will be exalted in that day.

  • Hos 2:16 “And in that day, declares the LORD, you will call me ‘My Husband,’ and no longer will you call me ‘My Baal.’
  • With the words the pride of mankind will be humbled, Isaiah expressed one of the major themes of his book. Through judgment, God cuts down the sinful pretensions of his people.
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1045). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

12 The Lord Almighty has a day in store
for all the proud and lofty,
for all that is exalted
(and they will be humbled),

13 for all the cedars of Lebanon, tall and lofty,
and all the oaks of Bashan,

  • Isa 14:8 The cypresses rejoice at you, the cedars of Lebanon, saying, ‘Since you were laid low, no woodcutter comes up against us.’

14 for all the towering mountains
and all the high hills,

  • Isa 30:25 And on every lofty mountain and every high hill there will be brooks running with water, in the day of the great slaughter, when the towers fall.

15 for every lofty tower
and every fortified wall,

16 for every trading ship
and every stately vessel.

17 The arrogance of man will be brought low
and human pride humbled;
the Lord alone will be exalted in that day,

18 and the idols will totally disappear.

19 People will flee to caves in the rocks
and to holes in the ground
from the fearful presence of the Lord
and the splendor of his majesty,
when he rises to shake the earth.

  • Hos 10:3 For now they will say: “We have no king, for we do not fear the LORD; and a king—what could he do for us?”
  • Rev 9:6 And in those days people will seek death and will not find it. They will long to die, but death will flee from them.

20 In that day people will throw away
to the moles and bats
their idols of silver and idols of gold,
which they made to worship.

21 They will flee to caverns in the rocks
and to the overhanging crags
from the fearful presence of the Lord
and the splendor of his majesty,
when he rises to shake the earth.

22 Stop trusting in mere humans,
who have but a breath in their nostrils.
Why hold them in esteem?

  • Psa 146:3 Put not your trust in princes, in a son of man, in whom there is no salvation.
  • Job 27:8 For what is the hope of the godless when God cuts him off, when God takes away his life?

Chapter 3

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JUDAH’S LEADERS JUDGED

1 Note this: The Lord GOD of Armies
is about to remove from Jerusalem and from Judah
every kind of security:
the entire supply of bread and water,

  • 3:1–3 Since God’s people trust in man (2:22) rather than in God, he will remove from them every kind of security. While various political, military, and religious leaders are on the list, it begins with the staples of bread and water. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1045). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 37:21 So King Zedekiah gave orders, and they committed Jeremiah to the court of the guard. And a loaf of bread was given him daily from the bakers’ street, until all the bread of the city was gone. So Jeremiah remained in the court of the guard.
  • Lev 26:26 When I break your supply of bread, ten women shall bake your bread in a single oven and shall dole out your bread again by weight, and you shall eat and not be satisfied.

2 heroes and warriors,
judges and prophets,
fortune-tellers and elders,

  • 2Ki 24:14 He carried away all Jerusalem and all the officials and all the mighty men of valor, 10,000 captives, and all the craftsmen and the smiths. None remained, except the poorest people of the land.

3 commanders of fifty and dignitaries,
counselors, cunning magicians, and necromancers.

4 “I will make youths their leaders,
and unstable rulers will govern them.”

  • 3:4–5 With the removal of the leaders in whom the people trust comes the installation of inexperienced youths to replace them. The result will be social chaos and oppression. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1045). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Ecc 10:16 Woe to you, O land, when your king is a child, and your princes feast in the morning!

5 The people will oppress one another,
man against man, neighbor against neighbor;
the young will act arrogantly toward the old,
and the worthless toward the honorable.

6 A man will even seize his brother
in his father’s house, saying,
“You have a cloak—you be our leader!
This heap of rubble will be under your control.”

  • 3:6–7 In such a disorderly society, it did not take much to be a leader among men. In the vignette described in these verses, the people are so unwilling and unfit to lead that a man will be pressed into a leadership role just because he has a cloak. But what would be left for him to lead? Only a heap of rubble. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1046). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

7 On that day he will cry out, saying,
“I’m not a healer.
I don’t even have food or clothing in my house.
Don’t make me the leader of the people!”

8 For Jerusalem has stumbled
and Judah has fallen
because they have spoken and acted against the LORD,
defying his glorious presence.

  • Mic 3:12 Therefore because of you Zion shall be plowed as a field; Jerusalem shall become a heap of ruins, and the mountain of the house a wooded height.

9 The look on their faces testifies against them,
and like Sodom, they flaunt their sin;
they do not conceal it.
Woe to them,
for they have brought disaster on themselves.

  • Gen 13:13 Now the men of Sodom were wicked, great sinners against the LORD.

10 Tell the righteous that it will go well for them,
for they will eat the fruit of their labor.

  • Ecc 8:12 Though a sinner does evil a hundred times and prolongs his life, yet I know that it will be well with those who fear God, because they fear before him.
  • Psa 128:2 You shall eat the fruit of the labor of your hands; you shall be blessed, and it shall be well with you.

11 Woe to the wicked—it will go badly for them,
for what they have done will be done to them.

  • Psa 11:6 Let him rain coals on the wicked; fire and sulfur and a scorching wind shall be the portion of their cup.

12 Youths oppress my people,
and women rule over them.
My people, your leaders mislead you;
they confuse the direction of your paths.

  • Isa 9:16 for those who guide this people have been leading them astray, and those who are guided by them are swallowed up.

13 The LORD rises to argue the case
and stands to judge the people.

  • 3:13–15 Isaiah returned to the legal language with which the book began (1:2). The leaders were guilty of destroying the vineyard, the land of Judah (5:1–7), through their exploitation of the poor. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1046). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Mic 6:2 Hear, you mountains, the indictment of the LORD, and you enduring foundations of the earth, for the LORD has an indictment against his people, and he will contend with Israel.

14 The LORD brings this charge
against the elders and leaders of his people:
“You have devastated the vineyard.
The plunder from the poor is in your houses.

  • Mat 21:33 “Hear another parable. There was a master of a house who planted a vineyard and put a fence around it and dug a winepress in it and built a tower and leased it to tenants, and went into another country.

15 Why do you crush my people
and grind the faces of the poor?”
This is the declaration
of the Lord GOD of Armies.

  • Mic 3:2-3 you who hate the good and love the evil, who tear the skin from off my people and their flesh from off their bones, Mic 3:3 who eat the flesh of my people, and flay their skin from off them, and break their bones in pieces and chop them up like meat in a pot, like flesh in a cauldron.

JERUSALEM’S WOMEN JUDGED

16 The LORD also says:

Because the daughters of Zion are haughty,
walking with heads held high
and seductive eyes,
prancing along,
jingling their ankle bracelets,
17 the Lord will put scabs on the heads
of the daughters of Zion,
and the LORD will shave their foreheads bare.

  • 3:16 The proud daughters of Zion stand for the city and the inhabitants of Jerusalem (1:8), not just its female inhabitants. Though clearly the inhabitants included a share of rich, snooty women, the fact that the city is clearly described by such a female personification in 3:25–26 confirms the view that the daughters should not be restricted to the female population. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1046). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Deu 28:27 The LORD will strike you with the boils of Egypt, and with tumors and scabs and itch, of which you cannot be healed.
  • Jer 13:22 And if you say in your heart, ‘Why have these things come upon me?’ it is for the greatness of your iniquity that your skirts are lifted up and you suffer violence.

18 On that day the Lord will strip their finery: ankle bracelets, headbands, crescents,

  • Jdg 8:21 Then Zebah and Zalmunna said, “Rise yourself and fall upon us, for as the man is, so is his strength.” And Gideon arose and killed Zebah and Zalmunna, and he took the crescent ornaments that were on the necks of their camels.

19 pendants, bracelets, veils, 20 headdresses, ankle jewelry, sashes, perfume bottles, amulets, 21 signet rings, nose rings, 22 festive robes, capes, cloaks, purses, 23 garments, linen clothes, turbans, and shawls.

24 Instead of perfume there will be a stench;
instead of a belt, a rope;
instead of beautifully styled hair, baldness;
instead of fine clothes, sackcloth;
instead of beauty, branding.

  • Isa 22:12 In that day the Lord GOD of hosts called for weeping and mourning, for baldness and wearing sackcloth;

25 Your men will fall by the sword,
your warriors in battle.
26 Then her gates will lament and mourn;
deserted, she will sit on the ground.

  • Jer 14:2 “Judah mourns, and her gates languish; her people lament on the ground, and the cry of Jerusalem goes up.
  • Lam 2:10 The elders of the daughter of Zion sit on the ground in silence; they have thrown dust on their heads and put on sackcloth; the young women of Jerusalem have bowed their heads to the ground.
  • Exo 21:10-11 If he takes another wife to himself, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, or her marital rights. 11 And if he does not do these three things for her, she shall go out for nothing, without payment of money. The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (Ex 21:10–11). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.

Chapter 4

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1 On that day seven women
will seize one man, saying,
“We will eat our own bread
and provide our own clothing.
Just let us bear your name.
Take away our disgrace.”

  • Genesis 30:23 (ESV) She conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.”
  • 1 Samuel 1:6 (ESV) And her rival used to provoke her grievously to irritate her, because the LORD had closed her womb.
  • Luke 1:25 (ESV) “Thus the Lord has done for me in the days when he looked on me, to take away my reproach among people.”
  • 2Th 3:12 Now such persons we command and encourage in the Lord Jesus Christ to do their work quietly and to earn their own living.
  • 3:25–4:1 War will severely reduce the male population of Jerusalem. There will not be enough men to marry all the women. Women without husbands were socially vulnerable. Thus, seven women will beg a single man to make them his wives. He will not even need to provide their food (bread) and clothing (something mandated even for unloved secondary wives in Ex 21:10–11).
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1046). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

ZION’S FUTURE GLORY

2 On that day the Branch of the LORD will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land will be the pride and glory of Israel’s survivors.

  • 4:2–6 This pronouncement marks a sudden shift from judgment to future salvation. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1047). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 23:5 “Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.
  • 4:2 That day is a future day, a time that comes after the judgment described in 2:5–4:1. Indeed, the new restored state of Zion is a product of passing through the crucible of judgment. The remnant is here described as Israel’s survivors.
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1047). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

3 Whoever remains in Zion and whoever is left in Jerusalem will be called holy — all in Jerusalem written in the book of life,

  • 4:3 The remnant will be holy. Holiness means set apart or consecrated for service to the Lord. Such a relationship implies an obedient lifestyle. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1047). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 60:21 Your people shall all be righteous; they shall possess the land forever, the branch of my planting, the work of my hands, that I might be glorified.
  • Phil 4:3 Yes, I ask you also, true companion, help these women, who have labored side by side with me in the gospel together with Clement and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.

4 when the Lord has washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion and cleansed the bloodguilt from the heart of Jerusalem by a spirit of judgment and a spirit of burning.

  • Mal 3:2,3 But who can endure the day of his coming, and who can stand when he appears? For he is like a refiner’s fire and like fullers’ soap.
  • 4:4 This verse explicitly states that Zion’s blessed future condition will be accomplished through judgment. It is an act of the grace of God. God’s people must wash themselves (1:16), but it is God who makes them clean.
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1047). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

5 Then the LORD will create a cloud of smoke by day and a glowing flame of fire by night over the entire site of Mount Zion and over its assemblies. For there will be a canopy over all the glory,

  • Exo 13:21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them along the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, that they might travel by day and by night.
  • Zec 2:5 And I will be to her a wall of fire all around, declares the LORD, and I will be the glory in her midst.'”
  • 4:5 After the exodus from Egypt, God guided Israel through the desert by a cloud and flame (cp. Ex 40:38), which represented God’s mysterious and powerful presence with his people. Isaiah used this language to teach that the future remnant will again enjoy an intimate and assuring relationship with God after the judgment. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1047). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 25:4 For you have been a stronghold to the poor, a stronghold to the needy in his distress, a shelter from the storm and a shade from the heat; for the breath of the ruthless is like a storm against a wall,

6 and there will be a shelter for shade from heat by day and a refuge and shelter from storm and rain

  • Isa 25:4 For you have been a stronghold to the poor, a stronghold to the needy in his distress, a shelter from the storm and a shade from the heat; for the breath of the ruthless is like a storm against a wall,

Chapter 5

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SONG OF THE VINEYARD

1 I will sing about the one I love,
a song about my loved one’s vineyard:
The one I love had a vineyard
on a very fertile hill.

  • 5:1–7 This poem has been identified as a parable, an allegory, and a love poem. Whatever its precise genre, its message is clear and compelling. It uses imagery to make the point that the people of God deserve the punishment coming their way. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1047). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Psa 80:8 You brought a vine out of Egypt; you drove out the nations and planted it.
  • Jer 2:21 Yet I planted you a choice vine, wholly of pure seed. How then have you turned degenerate and become a wild vine?
  • Mat 21:33 “Hear another parable. There was a master of a house who planted a vineyard and put a fence around it and dug a winepress in it and built a tower and leased it to tenants, and went into another country.
  • Mar 12:1 And he began to speak to them in parables. “A man planted a vineyard and put a fence around it and dug a pit for the winepress and built a tower, and leased it to tenants and went into another country.

2 He broke up the soil, cleared it of stones,
and planted it with the finest vines.
He built a tower in the middle of it
and even dug out a winepress there.
He expected it to yield good grapes,
but it yielded worthless grapes.

  • 5:2 The singer continues by describing the labor that went into preparing the vineyard. To create a vineyard was no easy matter. There was a period of a few years that passed from clearing the area of stones (pervasive through the hill country of Israel), planting expensive vines, and building a tower and a winepress. Similarly, God expended great effort in creating the right conditions for Israel to flourish as a godly nation. But in spite of all the work, the vineyard produced worthless grapes. This signified that the people of God did not live up to their promise of being an obedient and blessed people who would also bless the nations around them. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1047). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Deu 32:6 Do you thus repay the LORD, you foolish and senseless people? Is not he your father, who created you, who made you and established you?

3 So now, residents of Jerusalem
and men of Judah,
please judge between me
and my vineyard.

  • 5:3–6 In these verses the first-person speaker is God, the owner of the vineyard, demanding an accounting of his grapes, the people of Israel.
  • 5:3–4 When God called on the residents of Jerusalem to judge between him and his vineyard, he in essence was calling on them to judge themselves. In this way, this poem functions similarly to the parable of Nathan as he confronted David about his sin with Bathsheba (2Sm 12:1–15). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1047). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Rom 3:4 By no means! Let God be true though every one were a liar, as it is written, “That you may be justified in your words, and prevail when you are judged.”

4 What more could I have done for my vineyard
than I did?
Why, when I expected a yield of good grapes,
did it yield worthless grapes?
5 Now I will tell you
what I am about to do to my vineyard:
I will remove its hedge,
and it will be consumed;
I will tear down its wall,
and it will be trampled.

  • 5:5–6 The owner was incensed that the results of his hard labor had produced useless grapes, so he took his anger out on the vineyard. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1047). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Psa 80:12 Why then have you broken down its walls, so that all who pass along the way pluck its fruit?

6 I will make it a wasteland.
It will not be pruned or weeded;
thorns and briers will grow up.
I will also give orders to the clouds
that rain should not fall on it.
7 For the vineyard of the LORD of Armies
is the house of Israel,
and the men of Judah,
the plant he delighted in.
He expected justice
but saw injustice;
he expected righteousness
but heard cries of despair.

  • 5:7 The last verse of the poem makes explicit the identification of the vineyard as the people of God. It also gives the explanation for their punishment by means of a wordplay. In the land there was injustice (Hb mispach) and not justice (Hb mishpat), cries of despair (Hb tse‘aqah) and not righteousness (Hb tsedaqah). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (pp. 1047–1048). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.


JUDAH’S SINS DENOUNCED

8 Woe to those who add house to house
and join field to field
until there is no more room
and you alone are left in the land.

  • 5:8 The first woe is directed toward those who expanded their real estate holdings. Since God graciously provided the land so all of his people had some, buying up land was always done at the cost of another person. Ahab’s seizure of Naboth’s vineyard is a concrete illustration of this exploitation (1Kg 21).
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1048). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Mic 2:2 They covet fields and seize them, and houses, and take them away; they oppress a man and his house, a man and his inheritance.

9 I heard the LORD of Armies say:

Indeed, many houses will become desolate,
grand and lovely ones without inhabitants.

  • Isa 22:14 The LORD of hosts has revealed himself in my ears: “Surely this iniquity will not be atoned for you until you die,” says the Lord GOD of hosts.

10 For a ten-acre vineyard will yield
only six gallons of wine,
and ten bushels of seed will yield
only one bushel of grain.

  • Eze 45:11 The ephah and the bath shall be of the same measure, the bath containing one tenth of a homer, and the ephah one tenth of a homer; the homer shall be the standard measure.

11 Woe to those who rise early in the morning
in pursuit of beer,
who linger into the evening,
inflamed by wine.

  • 5:11–12 The second woe is directed toward those who indulged in excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages (beer and wine). They drank and ate and sang, forgetting what was really important—the work of God.
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1048). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Pro 23:29 Who has woe? Who has sorrow? Who has strife? Who has complaining? Who has wounds without cause? Who has redness of eyes?

12 At their feasts they have lyre, harp,
tambourine, flute, and wine.
They do not perceive the LORD’s actions,
and they do not see the work of his hands.

  • Amo 6:5 who sing idle songs to the sound of the harp and like David invent for themselves instruments of music,
  • Job 34:27 because they turned aside from following him and had no regard for any of his ways,
  • Psa 28:5 Because they do not regard the works of the LORD or the work of his hands, he will tear them down and build them up no more.

13 Therefore my people will go into exile
because they lack knowledge;
her dignitaries are starving,
and her masses are parched with thirst.

  • Hos 4:6 My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge; because you have rejected knowledge, I reject you from being a priest to me. And since you have forgotten the law of your God, I also will forget your children.

14 Therefore Sheol enlarges its throat
and opens wide its enormous jaws,
and down go Zion’s dignitaries, her masses,
her crowds, and those who celebrate in her!

  • 5:14 As God’s people indulged themselves with drink and food, so Sheol will open its large mouth and swallow them. Sheol refers to the grave and in some contexts signifies the underworld. The idea of Sheol swallowing its victims did not originate with the Hebrews, but may stem from the Canaanite story that describes the god of death (Mot) swallowing his victims. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1048). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

15 Humanity is brought low, each person is humbled,
and haughty eyes are humbled.

  • 5:15–17 John Oswalt (NICOT) notes the theological significance of v. 16. “It expresses the truth that what makes God truly God, what sets him off as divine, is neither his overwhelming power nor his mysterious numinousness. Rather, what marks him as God is his essential justice and righteousness.”Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1048). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 2:9, 11 So man is humbled, and each one is brought low— do not forgive them! 11 The haughty looks of man shall be brought low, and the lofty pride of men shall be humbled, and the LORD alone will be exalted in that day.

16 But the LORD of Armies is exalted by his justice,
and the holy God demonstrates his holiness through his righteousness.
17 Lambs will graze
as if in their own pastures,
and resident aliens will eat
among the ruins of the rich.

  • Isa 10:16 Therefore the Lord GOD of hosts will send wasting sickness among his stout warriors, and under his glory a burning will be kindled, like the burning of fire.

18 Woe to those who drag iniquity
with cords of deceit
and pull sin along with cart ropes,
19 to those who say,
“Let him hurry up and do his work quickly
so that we can see it!
Let the plan of the Holy One of Israel take place
so that we can know it!”

  • 5:18–19 The third woe begins by picturing people whose sin was so heavy that they ended up pulling it along in a cart behind them. Their sin was one of cynicism. With a tone of disbelief, they challenged God to act. In particular they might be thinking of God’s work of judgment. They sinned and did not yet see God’s punishment. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1048). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 17:15 Behold, they say to me, “Where is the word of the LORD? Let it come!”
  • Amo 5:18 Woe to you who desire the day of the LORD! Why would you have the day of the LORD? It is darkness, and not light,

20 Woe to those who call evil good
and good evil,

  • 5:20 The fourth woe is against those who confused ethical categories. They classified actions as evil that God would call good and vice versa. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1048). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

who substitute darkness for light
and light for darkness,
who substitute bitter for sweet
and sweet for bitter.
21 Woe to those who consider themselves wise
and judge themselves clever.

  • 5:21 As with the previous verse, the issue of the fifth woe is human autonomy. On being wise in one’s own eyes. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1048). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Rom 1:22 Claiming to be wise, they became fools,

22 Woe to those who are heroes at drinking wine,
who are champions at pouring beer,
23 who acquit the guilty for a bribe
and deprive the innocent of justice.

  • 5:22–23 The sixth and final woe returns to the earlier issue of excessive drinking (heroes at drinking wine) and also twisting justice for money. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1049). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Pro 17:15 He who justifies the wicked and he who condemns the righteous are both alike an abomination to the LORD.

24 Therefore, as a tongue of fire consumes straw
and as dry grass shrivels in the flame,
so their roots will become like something rotten
and their blossoms will blow away like dust,
for they have rejected
the instruction of the LORD of Armies,
and they have despised
the word of the Holy One of Israel.

  • Exo 15:7 In the greatness of your majesty you overthrow your adversaries; you send out your fury; it consumes them like stubble.
  • Job 18:16 His roots dry up beneath, and his branches wither above.

25 Therefore the LORD’s anger burned against his people.
He raised his hand against them and struck them;
the mountains quaked,
and their corpses were like garbage in the streets.
In all this, his anger has not turned away,
and his hand is still raised to strike.

  • 2Ki 22:13 “Go, inquire of the LORD for me, and for the people, and for all Judah, concerning the words of this book that has been found. For great is the wrath of the LORD that is kindled against us, because our fathers have not obeyed the words of this book, to do according to all that is written concerning us.”
  • Jer 4:24 I looked on the mountains, and behold, they were quaking, and all the hills moved to and fro.
  • Isa 9:12, 17 The Syrians on the east and the Philistines on the west devour Israel with open mouth. For all this his anger has not turned away, and his hand is stretched out still. Therefore the Lord does not rejoice over their young men, and has no compassion on their fatherless and widows; for everyone is godless and an evildoer, and every mouth speaks folly. For all this his anger has not turned away, and his hand is stretched out still.

26 He raises a signal flag for the distant nations
and whistles for them from the ends of the earth.
Look—how quickly and swiftly they come!

  • 5:26–28 God will call for foreign armies to descend on his people. Though these armies are not mentioned by name, we know from later history that these nations were Assyria and Babylon. Notice that God would signal them with a whistle, and they would immediately respond. This illustrates God’s sovereign rule over the nations. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1049). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 11:12 He will raise a signal for the nations and will assemble the banished of Israel, and gather the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.
  • Isa 7:18 In that day the LORD will whistle for the fly that is at the end of the streams of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria.
  • Mal 1:11 For from the rising of the sun to its setting my name will be great among the nations, and in every place incense will be offered to my name, and a pure offering. For my name will be great among the nations, says the LORD of hosts.
  • Joe 2:7 Like warriors they charge; like soldiers they scale the wall. They march each on his way; they do not swerve from their paths.

27 None of them grows weary or stumbles;
no one slumbers or sleeps.
No belt is loose
and no sandal strap broken.

  • Dan 5:6 Then the king’s color changed, and his thoughts alarmed him; his limbs gave way, and his knees knocked together.

28 Their arrows are sharpened,
and all their bows strung.
Their horses’ hooves are like flint;
their chariot wheels are like a whirlwind.

  • Jer 5:16 Their quiver is like an open tomb; they are all mighty warriors.

29 Their roaring is like a lion’s;
they roar like young lions;
they growl and seize their prey
and carry it off,
and no one can rescue it.

  • 5:29 Assyrian royal inscriptions often compare their kings to lions. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1049). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

30 On that day they will roar over it,
like the roaring of the sea.
When one looks at the land,
there will be darkness and distress;
light will be obscured by clouds.

  • Isa 8:22 And they will look to the earth, but behold, distress and darkness, the gloom of anguish. And they will be thrust into thick darkness.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 5:1–30). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /> Isaiah Chapter 6<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />

Chapter 6

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ISAIAH’S CALL AND MISSION

1 In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord seated on a high and lofty throne, and the hem of his robe filled the temple.

  • King Uzziah (called “Azariah” in 2Kg 15:1) died about 740 BC. He had been a relatively good king, and did “what was right in the LORD’s sight” (2Kg 15:3), though he did not remove the high places. God also blessed Uzziah’s reign with prosperity and military success. His death, coupled with the rise of Assyria, created great uncertainty in Judah. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1049). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • John 12:41 Isaiah said these things because he saw his glory and spoke of him.

2 Seraphim were standing above him; they each had six wings: with two they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they flew.

  • Eze 1:11 Such were their faces. And their wings were spread out above. Each creature had two wings, each of which touched the wing of another, while two covered their bodies.

3 And one called to another:

Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of Armies;
his glory fills the whole earth.

  • 6:3 The word holy spoken three times is emphatic or superlative and points to God’s otherness. He is completely separated from anything profane or sinful. His sovereignty is underlined by the fact that his glory filled the whole earth. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1049). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Rev 4:8 And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and within, and day and night they never cease to say, “Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come!”
  • Psa 72:19 Blessed be his glorious name forever; may the whole earth be filled with his glory! Amen and Amen!

4 The foundations of the doorways shook at the sound of their voices, and the temple was filled with smoke.
5 Then I said:

Woe is me for I am ruined
because I am a man of unclean lips
and live among a people of unclean lips,
and because my eyes have seen the King,
the LORD of Armies.

  • 6:5 In the presence of such holiness, Isaiah felt the weight of his own sinfulness. He feared for himself because he knew that God did not tolerate uncleanness in his presence. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1049). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

6 Then one of the seraphim flew to me, and in his hand was a glowing coal that he had taken from the altar with tongs.

  • 6:6–7 God prepared Isaiah by cleansing his lips, the instrument by which he would execute his prophetic task. He did this symbolically by having one of his seraphim touch the prophet’s lips with a burning coal. Fire can purify (Nm 31:22–23), and this burning coal was taken from the altar where sacrifices were offered to atone for sin (1Ch 6:49). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1050). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Rev 8:3 And another angel came and stood at the altar with a golden censer, and he was given much incense to offer with the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar before the throne,

7 He touched my mouth with it and said:

Now that this has touched your lips,
your iniquity is removed
and your sin is atoned for.

  • Jer 1:9 Then the LORD put out his hand and touched my mouth. And the LORD said to me, “Behold, I have put my words in your mouth.

8 Then I heard the voice of the Lord asking:

Who will I send?
Who will go for us?

I said:

Here I am. Send me.

  • Gen 1:26 Then God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.”

9 And he replied:

Go! Say to these people:
Keep listening, but do not understand;
keep looking, but do not perceive.
10 Make the minds of these people dull;
deafen their ears and blind their eyes;
otherwise they might see with their eyes
and hear with their ears,
understand with their minds,
turn back, and be healed.

  • 6:9–10 Isaiah was a prophet with a message of judgment. God’s commission recognized that, because of its sin, Israel’s healing could only come about through their punishment. Isaiah’s message from God would serve only to distance them even more from God. These verses are quoted in the NT to explain why Jesus taught in parables (Mt 13:14–15; Mk 4:12; Lk 8:10) and to explain the people’s lack of response to the gospel (Jn 12:40; Ac 28:26–27). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1050). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Mat 13:14–15 Indeed, in their case the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled that says: “‘”You will indeed hear but never understand, and you will indeed see but never perceive.” 15 For this people’s heart has grown dull, and with their ears they can barely hear, and their eyes they have closed, lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I would heal them.’
    • Joh 12:40 “He has blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, lest they see with their eyes, and understand with their heart, and turn, and I would heal them.”
  • Psa 119:70 their heart is unfeeling like fat, but I delight in your law.
  • Jer 5:21 “Hear this, O foolish and senseless people, who have eyes, but see not, who have ears, but hear not.

11 Then I said, “Until when, Lord?” And he replied:

  • Mic 3:12 Therefore because of you Zion shall be plowed as a field; Jerusalem shall become a heap of ruins, and the mountain of the house a wooded height.

Until cities lie in ruins without inhabitants,
houses are without people,
the land is ruined and desolate,
12 and the LORD drives the people far away,
leaving great emptiness in the land.
13 Though a tenth will remain in the land,
it will be burned again.
Like the terebinth or the oak
that leaves a stump when felled,
the holy seed is the stump.

  • 6:11–13 From the start Isaiah knew that his message would not lead God’s people to repentance. They would experience destruction. Even so, a remnant would survive. This remnant is pictured as a stump that is left after a mighty tree falls. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1050). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2 Kings 25:21 And the king of Babylon struck them down and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Hamath. So Judah was taken into exile out of its land.
  • Ezr 9:2 For they have taken some of their daughters to be wives for themselves and for their sons, so that the holy race has mixed itself with the peoples of the lands. And in this faithlessness the hand of the officials and chief men has been foremost.”

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 6:1–13). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 7

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THE MESSAGE TO AHAZ

1 This took place during the reign of Ahaz, son of Jotham, son of Uzziah king of Judah: Aram’s King Rezin and Israel’s King Pekah son of Remaliah went to fight against Jerusalem, but they were not able to conquer it.

  • Ahaz. King of southern kingdom, Judah. Jerusalem was in Judah.
  • Rezin. King of Damascus.
  • Pekah. King of Israel (Northern Kingdom).
  • Tiglath-pileser III. King of Assyria.
  • Aram = Syria— Hebrew, Aram, originally the whole region between the Euphrates and Mediterranean, including Assyria, of which Syria is an abbreviation; here the region round Damascus, and along Mount Libanus.

Oz note: The reason that King Rezin and King Pekah were attempting to capture Judah was because Pekah and Rezin had teamed up in a revolt against paying tribute to Assyria’s King Tiglath-pileser III. King Rezin and King Pekah tried to force Ahaz to joining them, but Ahaz refused. When Ahaz refused, King Rezin and King Pekah angrily swarmed into Judah in retaliation, but their attempt to conquer failed.

BACKGROUND:

  • The political situation was tense in Jerusalem.
  • In the early 730s BC the aggressive Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III was busy on his northern frontier.
  • During this time, Rezin, the king of Aram with its capital in Damascus, and Pekah, the king of Israel (also known as Ephraim), joined forces to withstand the almost certain Assyrian attack that would follow Tiglath-pileser’s victory in the north.
  • Rezin and Pekah wanted Judah to support them, but Ahaz wanted nothing to do with the alliance.
  • By this time he (Ahaz) might already have paid (or at least was contemplating paying) the Assyrians to rescue him from these kings (2Kg 16:6–9).
    • 2Ki 16:6 At that time Rezin the king of Syria recovered Elath for Syria and drove the men of Judah from Elath, and the Edomites came to Elath, where they dwell to this day.
    • 2Ki 16:7 So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, saying, “I am your servant and your son. Come up and rescue me from the hand of the king of Syria and from the hand of the king of Israel, who are attacking me.”
    • 2Ki 16:8 Ahaz also took the silver and gold that was found in the house of the LORD and in the treasures of the king’s house and sent a present to the king of Assyria.
    • 2Ki 16:9 And the king of Assyria listened to him. The king of Assyria marched up against Damascus and took it, carrying its people captive to Kir, and he killed Rezin.

  • Isaiah confronted the king with a question: What was the source of his trust: the Lord or the Assyrians? Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1050). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

2 When it became known to the house of David that Aram had occupied Ephraim, the heart of Ahaz and the hearts of his people trembled like trees of a forest shaking in the wind.

  • Aram = Syria— Hebrew, Aram, originally the whole region between the Euphrates and Mediterranean, including Assyria, of which Syria is an abbreviation; here the region round Damascus, and along Mount Libanus.
  • b>Ahaz. King of southern kingdom, Judah.

3 The LORD said to Isaiah, “Go out with your son Shear-jashub, to meet Ahaz at the end of the conduit of the upper pool, by the road to the Launderer’s Field. 4 Say to him: Calm down and be quiet. Don’t be afraid or cowardly because of these two smoldering sticks, the fierce anger of Rezin and Aram, and the son of Remaliah.

  • 7:4 The Lord’s message to Ahaz (King of Judah) is that he has nothing to fear.

5 For Aram, along with Ephraim and the son of Remaliah, has plotted harm against you. They say,

  • 7:5–6 Though no other certain references to Tabeel exist in the Bible or are known outside of it, the political intentions of Rezin and Pekah were clear. They wanted to remove Ahaz from the throne because of his unwillingness to join their coalition, and they intended to install a puppet king who would be more easily manipulated. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1050). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

6 ‘Let’s go up against Judah, terrorize it, and conquer it for ourselves. Then we can install Tabeel’s son as king in it.’ ”

7 This is what the Lord GOD says: It will not happen; it will not occur.

  • Isa 8:10 Take counsel together, but it will come to nothing; speak a word, but it will not stand, for God is with us.

8 The chief city of Aram is Damascus,
the chief of Damascus is Rezin
(within sixty-five years
Ephraim will be too shattered to be a people),

  • 2Sam 8:6 Then David put garrisons in Aram of Damascus, and the Syrians became servants to David and brought tribute. And the LORD gave victory to David wherever he went.

9 the chief city of Ephraim is Samaria,
and the chief of Samaria is the son of Remaliah.
If you do not stand firm in your faith,
then you will not stand at all.

  • 7:9 Ahaz, King of Judah, should trust God, not Assyria to rescue him from Rezin and Pekah.
    • 2Chr 20:20 And they rose early in the morning and went out into the wilderness of Tekoa. And when they went out, Jehoshaphat stood and said, “Hear me, Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem! Believe in the LORD your God, and you will be established; believe his prophets, and you will succeed.”

THE IMMANUEL PROPHECY

10 Then the LORD spoke again to Ahaz: 11 “Ask for a sign from the LORD your God — it can be as deep as Sheol or as high as heaven.”

  • 7:10–11 The purpose of a sign was to give Ahaz even more reason to have confidence in God rather than Assyria to rescue him from Rezin and Pekah. Sheol refers to the underworld. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1053). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Mat 12:38 Then some of the scribes and Pharisees answered him, saying, “Teacher, we wish to see a sign from you.”

12 But Ahaz replied, “I will not ask. I will not test the LORD.”

  • 7:12 From Isaiah’s reaction, the reader can discern that Ahaz’s reply, which on the surface seems pious, was actually impious. The king seemed to cite scriptural precedent (Dt 6:16), but the law prohibited the type of rebellious testing that took place at Massah (Ex 17:1–7), not a test offered by a true prophet of the Lord. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1053). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

13 Isaiah said, “Listen, house of David! Is it not enough for you to try the patience of men? Will you also try the patience of my God?

  • 7:13 The use of my God in this verse instead of “your God,” as in v. 11, shows that Ahaz’s lack of faith was a turning point in his life. Isaiah’s reference to him as house of David shows also that it would impact the Davidic dynasty, spelling its decline.
  • Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1053). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

14 Therefore, the Lord himself will give you a sign: See, the virgin will conceive, have a son, and name him Immanuel.

  • 7:14 The context indicates that the preliminary fulfillment of this sign must have taken place within a few years of its utterance—the time between a child’s conception and his knowing right from wrong (vv. 15–16), traditionally at age twelve. The Hebrew word translated virgin means “young woman of marriageable age” and often has the implication of virginity. Thus many scholars feel that the referent is a woman whom Isaiah would marry and, if so, then the birth is mentioned in 8:1–4. This may be the immediate fulfillment of this sign. But its ultimate and more exalted fulfillment is noted in Mt 1:23 as it cites the more specific Greek word found in the Septuagint, parthenos, which means “virgin.” Immanuel means “God With Us.”
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1053). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Mat 1:23 “Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel” (which means, God with us).
  • Isaiah 9:6 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
  • Gen 4:1, 25 Now Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, “I have gotten a man with the help of the LORD.” 25 And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and called his name Seth, for she said, “God has appointed for me another offspring instead of Abel, for Cain killed him.”
  • Isaiah 8:8 and it will sweep on into Judah, it will overflow and pass on, reaching even to the neck, and its outspread wings will fill the breadth of your land, O Immanuel.”

15 By the time he learns to reject what is bad and choose what is good, he will be eating curds and honey.

  • 7:15 The first phrase could also be translated, “In order to learn,” meaning that hardship will motivate the child to turn to God. The significance of eating curds and honey is that the devastation of the land’s agriculture (vv. 23–24) will be such that other foods will not be available. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1053). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

16 For before the boy knows to reject what is bad and choose what is good, the land of the two kings you dread will be abandoned.

  • 7:16 The Aramean kingdom of Rezin was destroyed in 732 BC. King Tiglath-pileser of Assyria reduced the size of the northern kingdom of King Pekah in 733 BC, and the king was assassinated and replaced by Hoshea. Even so, the northern kingdom was totally defeated in 722 BC, about thirteen years after the Immanuel prophecy. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1053). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isaiah 8:4 for before the boy knows how to cry ‘My father’ or ‘My mother,’ the wealth of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria will be carried away before the king of Assyria.”
  • 2 Kings 15:30 Then Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah and struck him down and put him to death and reigned in his place, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah.

17 The LORD will bring on you, your people, and your father’s house such a time as has never been since Ephraim separated from Judah: He will bring the king of Assyria.”

  • 7:17 It was not just Syria and the northern kingdom that would experience Assyrian devastation. Judah would also experience God’s punishment. As later events showed, paying Tiglath-pileser to take care of Ahaz’s northern problem was not the smartest strategy. From that point on Ahaz paid a heavy tribute as Assyria’s vassal (2Kg 16:10–18).
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (pp. 1053–1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2 Chronicles 28:19 For the LORD humbled Judah because of Ahaz king of Israel, for he had made Judah act sinfully and had been very unfaithful to the LORD.
  • 1 Kings 12:16 And when all Israel saw that the king did not listen to them, the people answered the king, “What portion do we have in David? We have no inheritance in the son of Jesse. To your tents, O Israel! Look now to your own house, David.” So Israel went to their tents.

18 On that day
the LORD will whistle to flies
at the farthest streams of the Nile
and to bees in the land of Assyria.

  • Isaiah 5:26 He will raise a signal for nations far away, and whistle for them from the ends of the earth; and behold, quickly, speedily they come!

19 All of them will come and settle
in the steep ravines, in the clefts of the rocks,
in all the thornbushes, and in all the water holes.

  • Jer 16:16 “Behold, I am sending for many fishers, declares the LORD, and they shall catch them. And afterward I will send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain and every hill, and out of the clefts of the rocks.

20 On that day the Lord will use a razor hired from beyond the Euphrates River—the king of Assyria—to shave the hair on your heads, the hair on your legs, and even your beards.

  • 7:20 The razor is Assyrian King Tiglath-pileser, who will ravage the land of Judah. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2KI 16:7 So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, saying, “I am your servant and your son. Come up and rescue me from the hand of the king of Syria and from the hand of the king of Israel, who are attacking me.”

21 On that day
a man will raise a young cow and two sheep,
22 and from the abundant milk they give
he will eat curds,
for every survivor in the land will eat curds and honey.

23 And on that day
every place where there were a thousand vines,
worth a thousand pieces of silver,
will become thorns and briers.
24 A man will go there with bow and arrows
because the whole land will be thorns and briers.
25 You will not go to all the hills
that were once tilled with a hoe,
for fear of the thorns and briers.
Those hills will be places for oxen to graze
and for sheep to trample.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 7:1–25). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 8

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The Coming Assyrian Invasion

1 Then the LORD said to me, “Take a large tablet and write on it in common characters, ‘Belonging to Maher-shalal-hash-baz.’

  • Hab 2:2 And the LORD answered me: “Write the vision; make it plain on tablets, so he may run who reads it.
  • The name Maher-shalal-hash-baz means “Speeding to the Plunder, Hurrying to the Spoil,” and it signifies the rapid future advance of Assyria. Maher-shalal-hash-baz was one of Isaiah’s sons. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

2 And I will get reliable witnesses, Uriah the priest and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah, to attest for me.”

  • 8:2 The presence of witnesses indicates that the writing of this prophecy had the force of a legal document. If the prophecy did not come true, then these two witnesses could attest to its falsity. If it did come true, they could proclaim that it was written before, and not after, the fact. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2Ki 16:10 When King Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, he saw the altar that was at Damascus. And King Ahaz sent to Uriah the priest a model of the altar, and its pattern, exact in all its details.

3 And I went to the prophetess, and she conceived and bore a son. Then the LORD said to me, “Call his name Maher-shalal-hash-baz; 4 for before the boy knows how to cry ‘My father’ or ‘My mother,’ the wealth of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria will be carried away before the king of Assyria.”

  • Isaiah’s wife was a prophetess (Ex 15:20; Deborah, Jdg 4:4; Huldah, 2Kg 22:14; Anna, Lk 2:36). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 8:4 The point of the prophecy is that within just a few years the Assyrian army would advance to crush Damascus, the capital of Rezin’s Syria, and Samaria, the capital of Pekah’s northern kingdom of Israel. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 7:16 For before the boy knows how to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land whose two kings you dread will be deserted.
  • 2Ki 15:29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel, Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria came and captured Ijon, Abel-beth-maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and he carried the people captive to Assyria.

5 The LORD spoke to me again: 6 “Because this people has refused the waters of Shiloah that flow gently, and rejoice over Rezin and the son of Remaliah,

  • 8:5–8 It was good news to Judah that Assyria would defeat Syria and Israel, the two nations that were allied against it. In this light rejoiced with Rezin, the translation and meaning of which is debated, likely refers to Judah’s rejoicing in Rezin’s coming defeat. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 8:6 The water of Shiloah refers to the small water channel that carried water from pools outside Jerusalem into the city. Here it stands for God himself, contrasting with the raging river mentioned in the next verse. Thus, Judah’s rejection of Shiloah signifies their rejection of God. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Joh 9:7 and said to him, “Go, wash in the pool of Siloam” (which means Sent). So he went and washed and came back seeing.
  • Isa 7:1,2 In the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, son of Uzziah, king of Judah, Rezin the king of Syria and Pekah the son of Remaliah the king of Israel came up to Jerusalem to wage war against it, but could not yet mount an attack against it. 2 When the house of David was told, “Syria is in league with Ephraim,” the heart of Ahaz and the heart of his people shook as the trees of the forest shake before the wind.

7 therefore, behold, the Lord is bringing up against them the waters of the River, mighty and many, the king of Assyria and all his glory. And it will rise over all its channels and go over all its banks,

  • 8:7 The mighty rushing water of the Euphrates represents the Assyrian king and thus Assyrian might. By calling on Tiglath-pileser to help him against the Syro-Ephraimite alliance, Ahaz was choosing a foreign nation rather than God. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

8 and it will sweep on into Judah, it will overflow and pass on, reaching even to the neck, and its outspread wings will fill the breadth of your land, O Immanuel.”

  • 8:8 The waters that represent Assyria will come up to Judah’s neck. They will not be drowned, but they will find themselves paying annual tribute. On occasion the Assyrian army will threaten their independent existence. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1054). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 30:28 his breath is like an overflowing stream that reaches up to the neck; to sift the nations with the sieve of destruction, and to place on the jaws of the peoples a bridle that leads astray.
  • Isa 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.

9  Be broken, you peoples, and be shattered;
give ear, all you far countries;
strap on your armor and be shattered;
strap on your armor and be shattered.

  • 8:9–10 Assyria will not completely subjugate Judah. After all, God was still with them. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1055). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Joe 3:9 Proclaim this among the nations: Consecrate for war; stir up the mighty men. Let all the men of war draw near; let them come up.

10  Take counsel together, but it will come to nothing;
speak a word, but it will not stand,
for God is with us.

  • Rom 8:31 What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?

Fear God, Wait for the LORD

11 For the LORD spoke thus to me with his strong hand upon me, and warned me not to walk in the way of this people, saying:

  • 8:11 God spoke to Isaiah (me) so he would not conform to the people’s beliefs. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1055). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

12 “Do not call conspiracy all that this people calls conspiracy, and do not fear what they fear, nor be in dread. 13 But the LORD of hosts, him you shall honor as holy. Let him be your fear, and let him be your dread.

  • 8:13 The fear of God overshadows all other fears (Lk 12:5). The reason Isaiah and others must not fear threatening alliances is because God is the only one who should be feared. There is a difference in the quality of the two fears described in these verses. The fear of human beings may be described as terror (v. 12), while the fear of God is described as awe. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1055). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

14 And he will become a sanctuary and a stone of offense and a rock of stumbling to both houses of Israel, a trap and a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

  • 8:14–15 The sanctuary image highlights God’s holiness and suggests that he protects his people, but because they have rejected him, the Judeans will experience him as a stumbling stone. Verse 14 is quoted in Rm 9:33 and 1Pt 2:8. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1055). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Eze 11:16 Therefore say, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD: Though I removed them far off among the nations, and though I scattered them among the countries, yet I have been a sanctuary to them for a while in the countries where they have gone.’
  • Luk 2:34 And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, “Behold, this child is appointed for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is opposed

15 And many shall stumble on it. They shall fall and be broken; they shall be snared and taken.”

  • Mat 21:44 And the one who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; and when it falls on anyone, it will crush him.”</li>

16 Bind up the testimony; seal the teaching among my disciples.

  • 8:16 The testimony, also called the instruction, refers to the words of God that have come to Isaiah. These are to be kept safely (bind up … seal up) by Isaiah’s disciples. They will keep the pronouncements of God secure until the events prove them true. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1055). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

17 I will wait for the LORD, who is hiding his face from the house of Jacob, and I will hope in him.

  • 8:17 Because of their sin, God will withdraw his saving presence (hiding his face) from his people (the house of Jacob). The faithful, represented by Isaiah, will wait for his certain return. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1055). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 54:8 In overflowing anger for a moment I hid my face from you, but with everlasting love I will have compassion on you,” says the LORD, your Redeemer.
  • Hab 2:3 For still the vision awaits its appointed time; it hastens to the end—it will not lie. If it seems slow, wait for it; it will surely come; it will not delay.

18 Behold, I and the children whom the LORD has given me are signs and portents in Israel from the LORD of hosts, who dwells on Mount Zion.

  • 8:18 The children who are signs and wonders are Shear-jashub (Isaiah’s son… whose name literally means “a remnant shall return”) (7:3) and Maher-shalal-hash-baz (Isaiah’s son, was born at the critical time in Israel’s history when the Assyrian King Tiglath-Pileser was poised to crush Damascus and Samaria. His hebrew name means, “the booty hastens, the spoil speeds,” and the name symbolized the doom that the prophet Isaiah expected to fall on the northern kingdom) (8:1-3). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1055). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Hab 2:13 Behold, is it not from the LORD of hosts that peoples labor merely for fire, and nations weary themselves for nothing?
  • Psa 71:7 I have been as a portent to many, but you are my strong refuge.

19 And when they say to you, “Inquire of the mediums and the necromancers who chirp and mutter,” should not a people inquire of their God? Should they inquire of the dead on behalf of the living?

  • 8:19–20 The people wanted Isaiah to engage in necromancy as did the witch of Endor (1Sm 28). Such divination was strictly prohibited in the OT (Dt 18:9–14). They should put their trust in God and seek only his guidance through his word. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1055). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 1Sa 28:8 So Saul disguised himself and put on other garments and went, he and two men with him. And they came to the woman by night. And he said, “Divine for me by a spirit and bring up for me whomever I shall name to you.”
  • Isa 29:4 And you will be brought low; from the earth you shall speak, and from the dust your speech will be bowed down; your voice shall come from the ground like the voice of a ghost, and from the dust your speech shall whisper.
  • Psa 106:28 Then they yoked themselves to the Baal of Peor, and ate sacrifices offered to the dead;
  • necromancers = a wizard or magician.

20 To the teaching and to the testimony! If they will not speak according to this word, it is because they have no dawn.

  • Luk 16:29 But Abraham said, ‘They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them.’
  • Mic 3:6 Therefore it shall be night to you, without vision, and darkness to you, without divination. The sun shall go down on the prophets, and the day shall be black over them;

21 They will pass through the land, greatly distressed and hungry. And when they are hungry, they will be enraged and will speak contemptuously against their king and their God, and turn their faces upward. 22 And they will look to the earth, but behold, distress and darkness, the gloom of anguish. And they will be thrust into thick darkness.

  • Rev 16:11 and cursed the God of heaven for their pain and sores. They did not repent of their deeds.

The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (Is 8:1–21). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.

Chapter 9

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BIRTH OF THE PRINCE OF PEACE

1 Nevertheless, the gloom of the distressed land will not be like that of the former times when he humbled the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali. But in the future he will bring honor to the way of the sea, to the land east of the Jordan, and to Galilee of the nations.

  • 9:1 Zebulun and Naphtali were two northern tribes hit hard by the Assyrian invasion led by Tiglath-pileser in 733 BC.
  • Isa 8:22 And they will look to the earth, but behold, distress and darkness, the gloom of anguish. And they will be thrust into thick darkness.
  • Lev 26:24 then I also will walk contrary to you, and I myself will strike you sevenfold for your sins.
  • 2Ki 15:29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel, Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria came and captured Ijon, Abel-beth-maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and he carried the people captive to Assyria.
    • Ijon – a ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at the instance of Asa ( 1 Kings 15:20 ), and afterwards by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria ( 2 Kings 15:29 ) in the reign of Pekah; now el-Khiam.
    • Abel-beth-maacah – Abel Beth Maacah, Arabic name: Tell Abil el-Qameḥ, is a large archaeological site consisting of a mound with a small upper northern section and a large lower southern one, connected by a saddle. It is located on the northern border of present-day Israel, about 2 km south of the town of Metulla and about 6.5 km west of Tel Dan.
    • Janoah – A town either far north of the previous Janoah or else east of the Jordan. It’s mentioned among the north and north-eastern towns and regions that fell to Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, during the reign of king Pekah of Israel. This invasion resulted in the first deportation of Israelites to Assyria.
    • Kedesh – Kedesh was first documented in the Book of Joshua as a Canaanite citadel conquered by the Israelites under the leadership of Joshua. Ownership of Kedesh was turned over by lot to the tribe of Naphtali and subsequently, at the command of God, Kedesh was set apart by Joshua as a Levitical city and one of the Cities of Refuge along with Shechem and Kiriath Arba (Hebron) (Joshua 20:7). In the 8th century BCE, during the reign of Pekah king of Israel, Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria took Kedesh and deported its inhabitants to Assyria.
    • Hazor – located in Israel, Upper Galilee, north of the Sea of Galilee, in the northern Korazim Plateau.
    • Gilead – was a mountainous region east of the Jordan River, situated in modern-day Jordan. It is also referred to by the Aramaic name Yegar-Sahadutha, which carries the same meaning as the Hebrew Gilead, namely “heap [of stones] of testimony” (Genesis 31:47–48).
    • Galilee – is a region mainly located in northern Israel. The term Galilee traditionally refers to the mountainous part, divided into Upper Galilee and Lower Galilee.
    • Naphtali – Joshua assigned Naphtali the eastern side of the Galilee (on the immediate west of the Sea of Galilee), in the areas now known as the Lower Galilee, and Upper Galilee, bordered on the west by Asher, in the north by Dan, in the south by Zebulun, and by the Jordan River on the east.[5] The most significant city was Hazor.

2 The people walking in darkness
have seen a great light;
a light has dawned
on those living in the land of darkness.

  • 9:2 The Assyrian invasion brought great devastation (darkness), but the people still had great reason to hope (light has dawned). The verbs in this section are in what is often called the “prophetic perfect.” Though the events were in the future, they are described as if they had already happened. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1055). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Mat 4:16 the people dwelling in darkness have seen a great light, and for those dwelling in the region and shadow of death, on them a light has dawned.”

3 You have enlarged the nation
and increased its joy.
The people have rejoiced before you
as they rejoice at harvest time
and as they rejoice when dividing spoils.

  • Jdg 5:30 ‘Have they not found and divided the spoil?— A womb or two for every man; spoil of dyed materials for Sisera, spoil of dyed materials embroidered, two pieces of dyed work embroidered for the neck as spoil?’

4 For you have shattered their oppressive yoke
and the rod on their shoulders,
the staff of their oppressor,
just as you did on the day of Midian.

  • 9:4 The type of deliverance the pronouncement pictures seemed impossible. After all, Assyria was a world power and God’s people were weak and crushed. Thus, the pronouncement alludes to the day of Midian. This refers to the events of Jdg 6–7 when Gideon—with just a handful of troops but with the power of God—defeated the oppressive Midianites and expelled them from the land. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1056). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jdg 7:22 When they blew the 300 trumpets, the LORD set every man’s sword against his comrade and against all the army. And the army fled as far as Beth-shittah toward Zererah, as far as the border of Abel-meholah, by Tabbath.

5 For every trampling boot of battle
and the bloodied garments of war
will be burned as fuel for the fire.

  • 9:5 As Gary Smith explains, “The burning of the boots and the bloody clothes of enemy soldiers … signify a victory in holy war where spoils were dedicated to God and military equipment was set on fire” Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1056). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 66:15 “For behold, the LORD will come in fire, and his chariots like the whirlwind, to render his anger in fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire.

6 For a child will be born for us,
a son will be given to us,
and the government will be on his shoulders.
He will be named
Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God,
Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.

  • Isa 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
  • Luk 2:11 For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.
  • Joh 3:16 “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.
  • Mat 28:18 And Jesus came and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me.
  • Tit 2:13 waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ,
  • Eph 2:14 For he himself is our peace, who has made us both one and has broken down in his flesh the dividing wall of hostility

7 The dominion will be vast,
and its prosperity will never end.
He will reign on the throne of David
and over his kingdom,
to establish and sustain it
with justice and righteousness from now on and forever.
The zeal of the LORD of Armies will accomplish this.

  • Dan 2:44 And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed, nor shall the kingdom be left to another people. It shall break in pieces all these kingdoms and bring them to an end, and it shall stand forever,
  • Isa 37:32 For out of Jerusalem shall go a remnant, and out of Mount Zion a band of survivors. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will do this.

THE HAND RAISED AGAINST ISRAEL

8 The Lord sent a message against Jacob;
it came against Israel.

  • 9:8–10 The preeminent sin of God’s people, pride and arrogance, is again pointed out. They believed they did not need God to survive and prosper. They continued in their pride even after experiencing devastation at the hands of Tiglath-pileser. They foolishly claimed they not only could rebuild, they could even improve themselves by their own resources and strength (cut stones replace bricks; cedars replace sycamores). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1056). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Mat 24:5 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.

9 All the people—
Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria—will know it.
They will say with pride and arrogance,

  • Ezekiel 7:9 (ESV) And my eye will not spare, nor will I have pity. I will punish you according to your ways, while your abominations are in your midst. Then you will know that I am the LORD, who strikes.
  • Proverbs 16:18 (ESV) Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall.
  • 1 Peter 5:5 (ESV) Likewise, you who are younger, be subject to the elders. Clothe yourselves, all of you, with humility toward one another, for “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.”

10 “The bricks have fallen,
but we will rebuild with cut stones;
the sycamores have been cut down,
but we will replace them with cedars.”

  • The bricks are fallen down – It contains the confession of the inhabitants of Samaria, that their affairs were in a ruinous and dilapidated state; but also their self-confident assurance that they would be able to repair the evils, and restore their nation to more than their former magnificence.Bricks, in oriental countries, were made of clay and straw, and were rarely turned. Hence, exposed to suns and rains, they soon dissolved. Walls and houses constructed of such materials would not be very permanent, and to build with them is strongly contrasted with building in a permanent and elegant manner with hewn stone.The meaning is, that their former state was one of less splendor than they designed that their subsequent state should be. Desolation had come in upon their country, and this they could not deny. But they confidently boasted that they would more than repair the evil.
  • The sycamores – These trees grew abundantly on the low lands of Judea, and were very little esteemed; 1Ki 10:27; 2Ch 1:15; 2Ch 9:27.

11 The LORD has raised up Rezin’s adversaries against him
and stirred up his enemies.

  • 9:11 Rezin was the king of Syria (Aram) whose adversaries were Assyria and its vassals.
  • Jeremiah 35:11 (ESV) But when Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up against the land, we said, ‘Come, and let us go to Jerusalem for fear of the army of the Chaldeans and the army of the Syrians.’ So we are living in Jerusalem.”
  • 2 Kings 16:9 (ESV) And the king of Assyria listened to him. The king of Assyria marched up against Damascus and took it, carrying its people captive to Kir, and he killed Rezin.
  • Deuteronomy 31:17 (ESV) Then my anger will be kindled against them in that day, and I will forsake them and hide my face from them, and they will be devoured. And many evils and troubles will come upon them, so that they will say in that day, ‘Have not these evils come upon us because our God is not among us?’
  • Jeremiah 4:8 (ESV) For this put on sackcloth, lament and wail, for the fierce anger of the LORD has not turned back from us.”

12 The Syrians on the east and the Philistines on the west devour Israel with open mouth. For all this his anger has not turned away, and his hand is stretched out still.

  • The Syrians – Isa 7:1. The Syrians had been the allies of the Israelites. But after the death of Rezin, it is probable that they joined the Assyrians, and united with them in the invasion of Samaria. – Aben Ezra; Grotius. “Before.” Hebrew ‘From the east.’ Syria was situated to the east of Samaria, and the meaning is here, that they would pour in upon Samaria from that side.
  • And the Philistines – The Philistines occupied the country southwest of Samaria, lying along on the shores of the Mediterranean. They were full of hostility to the Jewish people; and were many times engaged with them in wars and several times subdued them. The name Palestine is derived from Philistine.
  • And they shall devour – Hebrew, ‘They shall eat.’ This figure is taken from a ravenous beast; and means that they should come up with raging desires, and fierce impetuosity, to destroy the nation.
  • With open mouth– Hebrew, ‘With the whole mouth.’ The metaphor is derived from raging and furious animals. Chaldee, ‘In every place.’

13 The people did not turn to him who struck them;
they did not seek the LORD of Armies.
14 So the LORD cut off Israel’s head and tail,
palm branch and reed in a single day.

  • 9:14 After the first Assyrian incursion into the north (733 BC), Israel continued in its sinful ways. God soon brought a more devastating judgment in 722 BC, ending their independent existence. The expression head and tail, palm branch and reed points to a totality (19:15). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1056). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 9:13 God’s punishment of his people was intended to convince them to return to his ways, but they were so dull of mind and spirit that they did not respond. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1056). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Rev 18:8 For this reason her plagues will come in a single day, death and mourning and famine, and she will be burned up with fire; for mighty is the Lord God who has judged her.”

15 The head is the elder, the honored one;
the tail is the prophet, the one teaching lies.

  • 9:15–16 It was particularly the leaders (including the elder and the prophet) who were responsible for the people going in the wrong direction.
  • Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1056). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

16 The leaders of the people mislead them,
and those they mislead are swallowed up.

  • Isa 3:12 My people—infants are their oppressors, and women rule over them. O my people, your guides mislead you and they have swallowed up the course of your paths.

17 Therefore the Lord does not rejoice
over Israel’s young men
and has no compassion
on its fatherless and widows,
for everyone is a godless evildoer,
and every mouth speaks folly.
In all this, his anger has not turned away,
and his hand is still raised to strike.

  • Psa 147:10 His delight is not in the strength of the horse, nor his pleasure in the legs of a man,
  • Isa 5:25 Therefore the anger of the LORD was kindled against his people, and he stretched out his hand against them and struck them, and the mountains quaked; and their corpses were as refuse in the midst of the streets. For all this his anger has not turned away, and his hand is stretched out still.

18 For wickedness burns like a fire
that consumes thorns and briers
and kindles the forest thickets
so that they go up in a column of smoke.

  • 9:18–19 Devastation is seen as the natural consequence of wickedness itself (wickedness burns like a fire) as well as the result of divine anger (the land is scorched by the wrath of the LORD of Armies). Sin breaks up human relationships, even brotherly love. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Mal 4:1“For behold, the day is coming, burning like an oven, when all the arrogant and all evildoers will be stubble. The day that is coming shall set them ablaze, says the LORD of hosts, so that it will leave them neither root nor branch.

19 The land is scorched
by the wrath of the LORD of Armies,
and the people are like fuel for the fire.
No one has compassion on his brother.

  • Isa 8:22 And they will look to the earth, but behold, distress and darkness, the gloom of anguish. And they will be thrust into thick darkness.
  • Mic 7-2, 6 The godly has perished from the earth, and there is no one upright among mankind; they all lie in wait for blood, and each hunts the other with a net. 6. for the son treats the father with contempt, the daughter rises up against her mother, the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; a man’s enemies are the men of his own house.

20 They carve meat on the right,
but they are still hungry;
they have eaten on the left,
but they are still not satisfied.
Each one eats the flesh of his arm.

  • 9:20 The greediness of the people led them to consume everyone and everything in their path. Eventually their hunger turned them on themselves. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Lev 26:26 When I break your supply of bread, ten women shall bake your bread in a single oven and shall dole out your bread again by weight, and you shall eat and not be satisfied.

21 Manasseh eats Ephraim,
and Ephraim, Manasseh;
together, both are against Judah.
In all this, his anger has not turned away,
and his hand is still raised to strike.

  • 9:21 Manasseh and Ephraim were two large northern tribes whose founding fathers were brothers, the sons of Joseph (Gn 41:50–52; 48:5). They turned against each other, illustrating lack of compassion toward a brother (Is 9:19). Then together they turned against Judah. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 9:1–21). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 10

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1 Woe to those who decree iniquitous decrees,
and the writers who keep writing oppression,
2  to turn aside the needy from justice
and to rob the poor of my people of their right,
that widows may be their spoil,
and that they may make the fatherless their prey!

  • 10:1–2 God’s law protected the socially vulnerable:
    • the poor (Exo 23:6, 11 “You shall not pervert the justice due to your poor in his lawsuit. 11 but the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat; and what they leave the beasts of the field may eat. You shall do likewise with your vineyard, and with your olive orchard.)
    • widows (Exo 22:22 You shall not mistreat any widow or fatherless child.)
    • and the fatherless (Deu 10:18 He executes justice for the fatherless and the widow, and loves the sojourner, giving him food and clothing.).
  • Isaiah condemned man-made laws that corrupted justice. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

3  What will you do on the day of punishment,
in the ruin that will come from afar?
To whom will you flee for help,
and where will you leave your wealth?

  • 10:3 When the day of reckoning comes, where will they turn? Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

4  Nothing remains but to crouch among the prisoners
or fall among the slain.
For all this his anger has not turned away,
and his hand is stretched out still.

  • 10:4 Though punishment has come, God’s people still have not repented. More judgment will follow. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Judgment on Arrogant Assyria

5  Woe to Assyria, the rod of my anger;
the staff in their hands is my fury!

  • 10:5 The pronouncement opens with a woe against Assyria. This woe is directed toward the enemy rather than toward God’s people (10:1). Assyria is the tool he will use to bring punishment against Israel and Judah. The reference to a rod brings to mind the extensive teaching in Proverbs about using a rod to drive the folly out of a child (Pr 10:13; 22:15) and how a rod is applied to one’s son to encourage him to travel the right path (Pr 13:24; 23:13–14). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

6  Against a godless nation I send him,
and against the people of my wrath I command him,
to take spoil and seize plunder,
and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.

  • 10:6 The godless nation is ironically not Assyria but Israel. They will become the object of God’s anger. The phrase to take spoils, to plunder is reminiscent of the name Maher-shalal-hash-baz, “Speeding to the Plunder, Hurrying to the Spoil” (8:1). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

7  But he does not so intend,
and his heart does not so think;
but it is in his heart to destroy,
and to cut off nations not a few;

  • 10:7 There was a difference between the divine intention and the intention of Assyria. This difference was no obstacle to God’s use of Assyria for his purposes, but it did bode poorly for the tool of God’s anger. While God’s intention was to promote his own glory by punishing his sinful people, Assyria was interested only in imperialistic expansion. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

8  for he says:
“Are not my commanders all kings?

  • 10:8–11 Isaiah quotes the proud words of the Assyrian king. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2Ki 19:10 “Thus shall you speak to Hezekiah king of Judah: ‘Do not let your God in whom you trust deceive you by promising that Jerusalem will not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria.

9  Is not Calno like Carchemish?
Is not Hamath like Arpad?
Is not Samaria like Damascus?

  • 10:9 These three pairs of cities each begin with the southernmost of the two. Thus, Calno (also known as Calneh) was south of Carchemish, Hamath was south of Arpad, and Samaria was south of Damascus. These cities were paired and listed for geographical and not chronological reasons since Carchemish was conquered by the Assyrians in 717 BC, Calno in 738, Hamath in 738 and 720, and Arpad in 740. The claim of the Assyrian king was an imperialistic one, again demonstrating that his intention was different from God’s. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1057). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Amo 6:2 Pass over to Calneh, and see, and from there go to Hamath the great; then go down to Gath of the Philistines. Are you better than these kingdoms? Or is their territory greater than your territory,
  • 2Ch 35:20 After all this, when Josiah had prepared the temple, Neco king of Egypt went up to fight at Carchemish on the Euphrates, and Josiah went out to meet him.

10  As my hand has reached to the kingdoms of the idols,
whose carved images were greater than those of Jerusalem and Samaria,
11  shall I not do to Jerusalem and her idols
as I have done to Samaria and her images?”

  • 10:10-11. Comparing north and south. Samaria was north, and Jerusalem was south. Both were practicing idoltry.

12 When the Lord has finished all his work on Mount Zion and on Jerusalem, he will punish the speech of the arrogant heart of the king of Assyria and the boastful look in his eyes.

  • God will use Assyria, to do God’s will. Assyria “thinks” that they are the winners of the battle, but in the long run, God will punish them.
  • 2Ki 19:31 For out of Jerusalem shall go a remnant, and out of Mount Zion a band of survivors. The zeal of the LORD will do this.
  • Jer 50:18 Therefore, thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I am bringing punishment on the king of Babylon and his land, as I punished the king of Assyria.

13 For he says:

“By the strength of my hand I have done it,
and by my wisdom, for I have understanding;
I remove the boundaries of peoples,
and plunder their treasures;
like a bull I bring down those who sit on thrones.

  • 10:13–14 The boastful quotation from the Assyrian king reflects the type of bombastic language used in contemporary Assyrian royal inscriptions. The image of the Assyrian king stealing eggs from an abandoned nest emphasizes his cruelty in taking advantage of weaker nations. Indeed, no one can put up a substantial challenge to his growing power. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1058). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 37:24 By your servants you have mocked the Lord, and you have said, With my many chariots I have gone up the heights of the mountains, to the far recesses of Lebanon, to cut down its tallest cedars, its choicest cypresses, to come to its remotest height, its most fruitful forest.

14  My hand has found like a nest
the wealth of the peoples;
and as one gathers eggs that have been forsaken,
so I have gathered all the earth;
and there was none that moved a wing
or opened the mouth or chirped.”

  • Job 31:25 if I have rejoiced because my wealth was abundant or because my hand had found much,

15  Shall the axe boast over him who hews with it,
or the saw magnify itself against him who wields it?
As if a rod should wield him who lifts it,
or as if a staff should lift him who is not wood!

  • 10:15 The Assyrian king’s boasts are illfounded. From his perspective, he was a mighty warrior and a great leader of armies. From a heavenly perspective, he was a mere tool used by God to accomplish his purposes. The use of rhetorical questions directed to the king has the function of scolding and embarrassing him in his pretension. Each question has the implied answer, “Of course not.” Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1058). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 51:20 “You are my hammer and weapon of war: with you I break nations in pieces; with you I destroy kingdoms;

16  Therefore the Lord GOD of hosts
will send wasting sickness among his stout warriors,
and under his glory a burning will be kindled,
like the burning of fire.

  • 10:16–19 The conjunction therefore serves as a transition from indictment to judgment. The description of the punishment by disease and fire could be taken literally, metaphorically, or both. The point is clear: glorious and prosperous Assyria will soon be weakened by the judgment of God. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1058). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

17  The light of Israel will become a fire,
and his Holy One a flame,
and it will burn and devour
his thorns and briers in one day.

  • 10:17 The image of God as Light is typically used for positive purposes (Ps 27:1), but like the light of the sun, God both illuminates so people can see clearly and also scorches and kills in judgment. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1058). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Psa 27:1 Of David. The LORD is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The LORD is the stronghold of my life; of whom shall I be afraid?
  • Isa 9:18 For wickedness burns like a fire; it consumes briers and thorns; it kindles the thickets of the forest, and they roll upward in a column of smoke.

18  The glory of his forest and of his fruitful land
the LORD will destroy, both soul and body,
and it will be as when a sick man wastes away.

  • 2Ki 19:23 By your messengers you have mocked the Lord, and you have said, ‘With my many chariots I have gone up the heights of the mountains, to the far recesses of Lebanon; I felled its tallest cedars, its choicest cypresses; I entered its farthest lodging place, its most fruitful forest.

19  The remnant of the trees of his forest will be so few
that a child can write them down.

The Remnant of Israel Will Return

20 In that day the remnant of Israel and the survivors of the house of Jacob will no more lean on him who struck them, but will lean on the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.

  • The remnant will trust in God, and no one else.
  • 2Ki 16:7 So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, saying, “I am your servant and your son. Come up and rescue me from the hand of the king of Syria and from the hand of the king of Israel, who are attacking me.”

21 A remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God. 22 For though your people Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will return. Destruction is decreed, overflowing with righteousness.

  • 10:21–23 God had promised Abraham that his descendants would be as numerous as the sand of the sea (see Gn 22:17; 32:12; 41:49), but because of their punishment, only a remnant would survive and even that would be an act of God’s grace. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1058). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Rom 9:27 And Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will be saved,
  • Isa 6:13 And though a tenth remain in it, it will be burned again, like a terebinth or an oak, whose stump remains when it is felled.” The holy seed is its stump.

23 For the Lord GOD of hosts will make a full end, as decreed, in the midst of all the earth.

  • Dan 9:27 And he shall make a strong covenant with many for one week, and for half of the week he shall put an end to sacrifice and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall come one who makes desolate, until the decreed end is poured out on the desolator.”
  • Rom 9:28 for the Lord will carry out his sentence upon the earth fully and without delay.”

24 Therefore thus says the Lord GOD of hosts: “O my people, who dwell in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrians when they strike with the rod and lift up their staff against you as the Egyptians did.

  • 10:24 The present Assyrian threat is compared to the bondage in Egypt. This comparison evokes memories of God’s deliverance of his people at the Red Sea (Ex 14–15).

    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1058). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 37:6 Isaiah said to them, “Say to your master, ‘Thus says the LORD: Do not be afraid because of the words that you have heard, with which the young men of the king of Assyria have reviled me.

25 For in a very little while my fury will come to an end, and my anger will be directed to their destruction.

  • 10:25 God’s wrath against his covenant people is temporary, but his wrath against Assyria will end in their destruction.

    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1058). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Dan 11:36 “And the king shall do as he wills. He shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak astonishing things against the God of gods. He shall prosper till the indignation is accomplished; for what is decreed shall be done.

26 And the LORD of hosts will wield against them a whip, as when he struck Midian at the rock of Oreb. And his staff will be over the sea, and he will lift it as he did in Egypt.

  • 10:26 Oreb was a Midianite leader who oppressed the Israelites during the period of the judges. He was defeated by the forces of Gideon and executed at a rock that was given his name, the rock of Oreb (Jdg 7:24–25). The reference to God’s staff in Egypt recalls the crossing of the Red Sea. Moses raised his staff, representing God’s presence. God caused the sea to divide, allowing the Israelites to escape the Egyptian army (Ex 14:21–31).

    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1058). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2Ki 19:35 And that night the angel of the LORD went out and struck down 185,000 in the camp of the Assyrians. And when people arose early in the morning, behold, these were all dead bodies.
  • Isa 9:4 For the yoke of his burden, and the staff for his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, you have broken as on the day of Midian.
  • Exo 14:26 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the water may come back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.”

27 And in that day his burden will depart from your shoulder, and his yoke from your neck; and the yoke will be broken because of the fat.”

    10:27 The yoke is an image of political domination frequently used by the prophets

    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1059). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

    • Eze 30:18 At Tehaphnehes the day shall be dark, when I break there the yoke bars of Egypt, and her proud might shall come to an end in her; she shall be covered by a cloud, and her daughters shall go into captivity.
  • Psa 105:15 saying, “Touch not my anointed ones, do my prophets no harm!”
  • 1Jo 2:20 But you have been anointed by the Holy One, and you all have knowledge.

28  He has come to Aiath;
he has passed through Migron;
at Michmash he stores his baggage;

  • 10:28–32 The pronouncement in these verses describes the march of the Assyrian army from the north to the very doorstep of Jerusalem. The best understanding of these verses is as a visionary image of an attack, not a description of an actual attack. The route described is the most direct route “as the crow flies,” indicating that not even natural obstacles could slow down the army’s advance.Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1059). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 10:28 Aiath is likely identified with Ai (Jos 8), which was about thirty miles north of Jerusalem. But the Hebrew term Ai means “ruin” and Aiath is plural, “ruins,” so the name could be given to a number of different sites. Migron refers to the Wadi Swenit, a dry riverbed between Michmash and Geba.

29  they have crossed over the pass;
at Geba they lodge for the night;
Ramah trembles;
Gibeah of Saul has fled.

  • 10:29 Ramah and Gibeah were on the major central hill route north of Jerusalem.
  • 1Sa 13:23 And the garrison of the Philistines went out to the pass of Michmash.
  • 1Sa 11:4 When the messengers came to Gibeah of Saul, they reported the matter in the ears of the people, and all the people wept aloud.

30  Cry aloud, O daughter of Gallim!
Give attention, O Laishah!
O poor Anathoth!

  • 10:30 Gallim … Laishah, and Anathoth (known as the hometown of the prophet Jeremiah; Jr 1:1) were small towns just north of Jerusalem. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1059). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 1Sa 25:44 Saul had given Michal his daughter, David’s wife, to Palti the son of Laish, who was of Gallim.
  • Jud 18:7 Then the five men departed and came to Laish and saw the people who were there, how they lived in security, after the manner of the Sidonians, quiet and unsuspecting, lacking nothing that is in the earth and possessing wealth, and how they were far from the Sidonians and had no dealings with anyone.

31  Madmenah is in flight;
the inhabitants of Gebim flee for safety.

  • Josh 15:31 Ziklag, Madmannah, Sansannah,

32  This very day he will halt at Nob;
he will shake his fist
at the mount of the daughter of Zion,
the hill of Jerusalem.

  • 10:32 Nob is typically associated with modern Mount Scopus, just northeast of Jerusalem. As a person stands on Nob, he has a commanding view of the city of Jerusalem. Nob was where David received sustenance and the sword of Goliath as he began his flight from Saul. King Saul repaid the priests at Nob by slaughtering them (1Sm 21:1–9; 22:11–23). Nob is also mentioned in Neh 11:32 as near Anathoth. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1059). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 1Sa21:1 After the death of Moses the servant of the LORD, the LORD said to Joshua the son of Nun, Moses’ assistant,
  • Neh 11:32 Anathoth, Nob, Ananiah,
  • Isa 13:2 On a bare hill raise a signal; cry aloud to them; wave the hand for them to enter the gates of the nobles.
  • Isa 37:22 this is the word that the LORD has spoken concerning him: “‘She despises you, she scorns you— the virgin daughter of Zion; she wags her head behind you— the daughter of Jerusalem.

33  Behold, the Lord GOD of hosts
will lop the boughs with terrifying power;
the great in height will be hewn down,
and the lofty will be brought low.

  • 10:33–34 The pronouncement ends with a sudden reversal. Assyria marched on Jerusalem, but the army met with destruction. They will become trees (a cedar from Lebanon is implied by the final line) that will be felled by none other than God himself. The Assyrians had been the ax in God’s hand against his people (v. 15), but God will wield an ax against them. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1059). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Amo 2:9 “Yet it was I who destroyed the Amorite before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars and who was as strong as the oaks; I destroyed his fruit above and his roots beneath.

34  He will cut down the thickets of the forest with an axe,
and Lebanon will fall by the Majestic One.

The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2016). (Is 10:1–34). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles.

Chapter 11

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1 Then a shoot will grow from the stump of Jesse,
and a branch from his roots will bear fruit.

  • Zec 6:12 And say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD of hosts, “Behold, the man whose name is the Branch: for he shall branch out from his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD.
  • Rev 5:5 And one of the elders said to me, “Weep no more; behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals.”
  • Act 13:23 Of this man’s offspring God has brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, as he promised.
  • Isa 4:2 In that day the branch of the LORD shall be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land shall be the pride and honor of the survivors of Israel.

2 The Spirit of the LORD will rest on him—
a Spirit of wisdom and understanding,
a Spirit of counsel and strength,
a Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.

  • Isa 61:1 The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me, because the LORD has anointed me to bring good news to the poor; he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound;
  • Joh 1:32 And John bore witness: “I saw the Spirit descend from heaven like a dove, and it remained on him.

3 His delight will be in the fear of the LORD.
He will not judge
by what he sees with his eyes,
he will not execute justice
by what he hears with his ears,

  • 11:3 The fear of the LORD is the basic characteristic of a wise, godly person (Pr 1:7). The fear described here is not terror but awe. This wise, Spirit-filled person will not judge according to external appearances, but he will cut to the heart of the truth. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1059). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

4 but he will judge the poor righteously
and execute justice for the oppressed of the land.
He will strike the land
with a scepter from his mouth,
and he will kill the wicked
with a command from his lips.

  • Rev 19:11 Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war.
  • Job 4:9 By the breath of God they perish, and by the blast of his anger they are consumed.
  • Mat 4:6 and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, “‘He will command his angels concerning you,’ and “‘On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone.'”
  • 2Th 2:8And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth and bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming.

5 Righteousness will be a belt around his hips;
faithfulness will be a belt around his waist.
6 The wolf will dwell with the lamb,
and the leopard will lie down with the goat.
The calf, the young lion, and the fattened calf will be together,
and a child will lead them.

  • 11:6–9 The future rule is described in Edenic terms where there is no animosity among God’s creatures. The knowledge of the LORD will permeate this future ideal world ushered in by the shoot of the stump of Jesse. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1060). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Hos 2:18 And I will make for them a covenant on that day with the beasts of the field, the birds of the heavens, and the creeping things of the ground. And I will abolish the bow, the sword, and war from the land, and I will make you lie down in safety.

7 The cow and the bear will graze,
their young ones will lie down together,
and the lion will eat straw like cattle.
8 An infant will play beside the cobra’s pit,
and a toddler will put his hand into a snake’s den.
9 They will not harm or destroy each other
on my entire holy mountain,
for the land will be as full
of the knowledge of the LORD
as the sea is filled with water.

  • Job 5:23 For you shall be in league with the stones of the field, and the beasts of the field shall be at peace with you.
  • Hab 2:14 For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the LORD as the waters cover the sea.

ISRAEL REGATHERED

10 On that day the root of Jesse
will stand as a banner for the peoples.
The nations will look to him for guidance,
and his resting place will be glorious.

  • Rom 15:10, 12 Rom 15:10 And again it is said, “Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.” 12 And again Isaiah says, “The root of Jesse will come, even he who arises to rule the Gentiles; in him will the Gentiles hope.”

11 On that day the Lord will extend his hand a second time to recover the remnant of his people who survive—from Assyria, Egypt, Pathros, Cush, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, and the coasts and islands of the west.

  • Oz: Commentaries state that the list of countries here are just representing “from all directions”. Not necessarily the exact countries.
  • Zec 10:10 I will bring them home from the land of Egypt, and gather them from Assyria, and I will bring them to the land of Gilead and to Lebanon, till there is no room for them.

12 He will lift up a banner for the nations
and gather the dispersed of Israel;
he will collect the scattered of Judah
from the four corners of the earth.

  • Joh 7:35 The Jews said to one another, “Where does this man intend to go that we will not find him? Does he intend to go to the Dispersion among the Greeks and teach the Greeks?

13 Ephraim’s envy will cease;
Judah’s harassing will end.
Ephraim will no longer be envious of Judah,
and Judah will not harass Ephraim.

  • Oz: Ephraim = the northern kingdom of Israel, also known as Samaria.
  • Jer 3:18 In those days the house of Judah shall join the house of Israel, and together they shall come from the land of the north to the land that I gave your fathers for a heritage.
  • Eze 37:16, 17, 22 “Son of man, take a stick and write on it, ‘For Judah, and the people of Israel associated with him’; then take another stick and write on it, ‘For Joseph (the stick of Ephraim) and all the house of Israel associated with him.’ 17 And join them one to another into one stick, that they may become one in your hand. 22 And I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel. And one king shall be king over them all, and they shall be no longer two nations, and no longer divided into two kingdoms.

14 But they will swoop down
on the Philistine flank to the west.
Together they will plunder the people of the east.
They will extend their power over Edom and Moab,
and the Ammonites will be their subjects.

  • Oz: all these little countries will be absorbed into Israel. These small countries have been known to cause problems for Israel in the past.
  • Dan 11:41 He shall come into the glorious land. And tens of thousands shall fall, but these shall be delivered out of his hand: Edom and Moab and the main part of the Ammonites.

15 The LORD will divide, the Gulf of Suez.
He will wave his hand over the Euphrates
with his mighty wind
and will split it into seven streams,
letting people walk through on foot.

  • 11:15–16 Exodus imagery is used to describe the return of the remnant from Assyria. God will split the Euphrates River like he did the Red Sea, but in this case he won’t split it into two parts but seven. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1060). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Zec 10:11 He shall pass through the sea of troubles and strike down the waves of the sea, and all the depths of the Nile shall be dried up. The pride of Assyria shall be laid low, and the scepter of Egypt shall depart.
  • Rev 16:12 The sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water was dried up, to prepare the way for the kings from the east.

16 There will be a highway for the remnant of his people
who will survive from Assyria,
as there was for Israel
when they came up from the land of Egypt.

  • Isa 19:21 And the LORD will make himself known to the Egyptians, and the Egyptians will know the LORD in that day and worship with sacrifice and offering, and they will make vows to the LORD and perform them.
  • Exo 14:29 But the people of Israel walked on dry ground through the sea, the waters being a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 11:1–16). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.


Chapter 12

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c. 734 B.C.
A SONG OF PRAISE

1 On that day you will say:
“I will give thanks to you, LORD,
although you were angry with me.
Your anger has turned away,
and you have comforted me.

  • on that day = a future day; a day of salvation!
  • LORD = yah; yahweh. Hebrew.
  • Isa 2:11 The haughty looks of man shall be brought low, and the lofty pride of men shall be humbled, and the LORD alone will be exalted in that day.
  • Psa 83:18 that they may know that you alone, whose name is the LORD, are the Most High over all the earth.
  • Exo 15:2 The LORD is my strength and my song, and he has become my salvation; this is my God, and I will praise him, my father’s God, and I will exalt him.
  • Psa 118:14 The LORD is my strength and my song; he has become my salvation.

2 Indeed, God is my salvation;
I will trust him and not be afraid,
for the LORD, the LORD himself,
is my strength and my song.
He has become my salvation.”
3 You will joyfully draw water
from the springs of salvation,

  • draw water = water in a dry land like Israel represents salvation.
  • Joh 4:10 Jesus answered her, “If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water.”

4 and on that day you will say,
“Give thanks to the LORD; proclaim his name!
Make his works known among the peoples.
Declare that his name is exalted.

  • 1Ch 16:8 Oh give thanks to the LORD; call upon his name; make known his deeds among the peoples!
  • Psa 105:1 Oh give thanks to the LORD; call upon his name; make known his deeds among the peoples!
  • Psa 145:4-6 One generation shall commend your works to another, and shall declare your mighty acts. 5 On the glorious splendor of your majesty, and on your wondrous works, I will meditate. 6 They shall speak of the might of your awesome deeds, and I will declare your greatness.
  • Psa 34:3 Oh, magnify the LORD with me, and let us exalt his name together!

5 Sing to the LORD, for he has done glorious things.
Let this be known throughout the earth.

  • Exo 15:1 Then Moses and the people of Israel sang this song to the LORD, saying, “I will sing to the LORD, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea.
  • Psa 98:1 A Psalm. Oh sing to the LORD a new song, for he has done marvelous things! His right hand and his holy arm have worked salvation for him.

6 Cry out and sing, citizen of Zion,
for the Holy One of Israel is among you
in his greatness.”

  • Zep 3:14 Sing aloud, O daughter of Zion; shout, O Israel! Rejoice and exult with all your heart, O daughter of Jerusalem!
  • Psa 89:18 For our shield belongs to the LORD, our king to the Holy One of Israel.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 12:1–6). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 13

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c. 734 B.C.

A PRONOUNCEMENT AGAINST BABYLON

1 A pronouncement concerning Babylon that Isaiah son of Amoz saw:

  • The pronouncement of Babylon – The prophecy that foretells its destruction by the Medes and Persians
  • Bible Dictionary Commentary: Against Babylon: Isaiah finished his prophetic career in 685 B.C., almost 100 years before Judah finally fell before the Babylonian Empire (586 B.C.). At the time of this prophecy, Babylon was a significant nation, but they were definitely behind the Assyrian Empire in status. Yet the LORD who knows the end of all things can speak of the judgment on the pride of Babylon hundreds of years before the judgment comes.
  • See Jeremiah, Chapter 50 and 51.
  • Oz: Chaldeans were eventually absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.

2 Lift up a banner on a barren mountain.
Call out to them.
Signal with your hand, and they will go
through the gates of the nobles.

  • Isa 18:3 All you inhabitants of the world, you who dwell on the earth, when a signal is raised on the mountains, look! When a trumpet is blown, hear!
  • Jer 51:25 “Behold, I am against you, O destroying mountain, declares the LORD, which destroys the whole earth; I will stretch out my hand against you, and roll you down from the crags, and make you a burnt mountain.
  • Isa 10:32 This very day he will halt at Nob; he will shake his fist at the mount of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem.

3 I have commanded my consecrated ones;
yes, I have called my warriors,
who celebrate my triumph,
to execute my wrath.

  • Joe 3:11 Hasten and come, all you surrounding nations, and gather yourselves there. Bring down your warriors, O LORD.
  • Psa 149:2 Let Israel be glad in his Maker; let the children of Zion rejoice in their King!

4 Listen, a commotion on the mountains,
like that of a mighty people!
Listen, an uproar among the kingdoms,
like nations being gathered together!
The LORD of Armies is mobilizing an army for war.

  • 13:4 The LORD of Armies is God’s name that signifies his activity in warfare. The commotion on the mountains emanates from God’s army that gathers there. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1061). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

5 They are coming from a distant land,
from the farthest horizon—
the LORD and the weapons of his wrath—
to destroy the whole country.

  • 13:5 The distant land is not specified, but it may be a reference to the Medes (v. 17) whom God will use (as part of the Persian Empire) to defeat Babylon (the whole country). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1061). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

6 Wail! For the day of the LORD is near.

  • Zep 1:7 Be silent before the Lord GOD! For the day of the LORD is near; the LORD has prepared a sacrifice and consecrated his guests.
  • Rev 6:17 for the great day of their wrath has come, and who can stand?”
  • Job 31:23 For I was in terror of calamity from God, and I could not have faced his majesty.
  • Joe 1:15 Alas for the day! For the day of the LORD is near, and as destruction from the Almighty it comes.

It will come as destruction from the Almighty.
7 Therefore everyone’s hands will become weak,
and every man will lose heart.

  • 13:7 Weak hands and a melted heart refer to physical and psychological reactions to fear. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1061). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

8 They will be horrified;
pain and agony will seize them;
they will be in anguish like a woman in labor.
They will look at each other,
their faces flushed with fear.



  • 13:8 Isaiah used the theme of a woman in labor, one that appears often in prophetic literature (21:3; Jr 4:31; 6:24; 22:23; 30:6; Mc 4:9). It is a graphic image of the pain and distress that will result from God’s warring activity. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1061). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Psa 48:6 Trembling took hold of them there, anguish as of a woman in labor.

9 Look, the day of the LORD is coming—
cruel, with fury and burning anger—
to make the earth a desolation
and to destroy its sinners.

  • Mal 4:1 “For behold, the day is coming, burning like an oven, when all the arrogant and all evildoers will be stubble. The day that is coming shall set them ablaze, says the LORD of hosts, so that it will leave them neither root nor branch.
  • Psa 104:35 Let sinners be consumed from the earth, and let the wicked be no more! Bless the LORD, O my soul! Praise the LORD!
  • Pro 2:22 but the wicked will be cut off from the land, and the treacherous will be rooted out of it.

10 Indeed, the stars of the sky and its constellations
will not give their light.
The sun will be dark when it rises,
and the moon will not shine.

  • 13:10 The incursion of God as warrior causes nature to go into convulsions. On the day of God’s judgment, the sun … moon, and stars, which God created to provide the world with light (Gn 1:14–19), will go out, plunging the world into darkness (Ezk 32:7; Jl 2:2; 3:1, 15; Am 5:18; Mc 3:6; Mt 24:29; Lk 21:25; Rv 8:12). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (pp. 1061–1062). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Eze 32:7 When I blot you out, I will cover the heavens and make their stars dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give its light.
  • Joe 2:31 The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the great and awesome day of the LORD comes.
  • Mat 24:29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
  • Mar 13:24 “But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light,

11 I will punish the world for its evil,
and wicked people for their iniquities.
I will put an end to the pride of the arrogant
and humiliate the insolence of tyrants.

  • 13:11 The object of God’s wrath is pride that leads people to trust in themselves rather than in him. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1062). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 2:17 And the haughtiness of man shall be humbled, and the lofty pride of men shall be brought low, and the LORD alone will be exalted in that day.

12 I will make a human more scarce than fine gold,
and mankind more rare than the gold of Ophir.

  • 13:12 God’s warring judgment will reduce the population of the earth dramatically.

13 Therefore I will make the heavens tremble,
and the earth will shake from its foundations
at the wrath of the LORD of Armies,
on the day of his burning anger.

  • 13:13 When the divine warrior appears, not only will the heavenly bodies convulse (v. 10); so will the earth. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1062). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Hag 2:6 For thus says the LORD of hosts: Yet once more, in a little while, I will shake the heavens and the earth and the sea and the dry land.
  • Psa 110:5 The Lord is at your right hand; he will shatter kings on the day of his wrath.
  • Lam 1:12 “Is it nothing to you, all you who pass by? Look and see if there is any sorrow like my sorrow, which was brought upon me, which the LORD inflicted on the day of his fierce anger.

14 Like wandering gazelles
and like sheep without a shepherd,
each one will turn to his own people,
each one will flee to his own land.

  • 13:14–15 The destroyed city had residents from many different lands. Once destroyed, the people will be leaderless and will quickly run (like wandering gazelles) back to their homeland. However, they may not make it back. The road will be lined with dangers, including robbers and perhaps even an enemy army. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1062). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 50:16 Cut off from Babylon the sower, and the one who handles the sickle in time of harvest; because of the sword of the oppressor, every one shall turn to his own people, and every one shall flee to his own land.

15 Whoever is found will be stabbed,
and whoever is caught will die by the sword.
16 Their children will be dashed to pieces before their eyes;
their houses will be looted,
and their wives raped.

  • Psa 137:9 Blessed shall he be who takes your little ones and dashes them against the rock!
  • Nah 3:10 Yet she became an exile; she went into captivity; her infants were dashed in pieces at the head of every street; for her honored men lots were cast, and all her great men were bound in chains.
  • Zec 14:2 For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city shall be taken and the houses plundered and the women raped. Half of the city shall go out into exile, but the rest of the people shall not be cut off from the city.

17 Look! I am stirring up the Medes against them,
who cannot be bought off with silver
and who have no desire for gold.

  • 13:17 At last, the attacking army is described as the implacable Medes, a people known as early as the ninth century BC. They came from the Zagros Mountains east of the Mesopotamian plain. These warlike people are known in history as Babylon’s allies when they defeated Assyria. However, in the sixth century BC they were engulfed by Persia. The combined armies of the Medes and Persians defeated Babylon in 539 BC. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1062). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 51:11 “Sharpen the arrows! Take up the shields! The LORD has stirred up the spirit of the kings of the Medes, because his purpose concerning Babylon is to destroy it, for that is the vengeance of the LORD, the vengeance for his temple.
  • Dan 5:28 PERES, your kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians.”

18 Their bows will cut young men to pieces.
They will have no compassion on offspring;
they will not look with pity on children.

19 And Babylon, the jewel of the kingdoms,
the glory of the pride of the Chaldeans,
will be like Sodom and Gomorrah
when God overthrew them.

  • 13:19 For the first time Babylon is named as the object of God’s warring activity. They are described as the jewel of the kingdoms in anticipation of the position they will assume after their defeat of Assyria at the end of the seventh century BC. The Chaldeans were the leading tribe that produced the leaders (Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar) who led the Babylonian resurgence. The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is described in Gn 19. This account in Isaiah implies a horrible end. It associates Babylon with the perverse sin that led to the destruction of those cities. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1062). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 14:4 you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon: “How the oppressor has ceased, the insolent fury ceased!
  • Gen 19:24 Then the LORD rained on Sodom and Gomorrah sulfur and fire from the LORD out of heaven.
  • Deu 29:23 the whole land burned out with brimstone and salt, nothing sown and nothing growing, where no plant can sprout, an overthrow like that of Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, which the LORD overthrew in his anger and wrath—
  • Jer 50:40 As when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah and their neighboring cities, declares the LORD, so no man shall dwell there, and no son of man shall sojourn in her.

20 It will never be inhabited
or lived in from generation to generation;
a nomad will not pitch his tent there,
and shepherds will not let their flocks rest there.

  • 13:20 In 689 BC the Assyrian king Sennacherib “defeated Babylon, tore down its walls, flooded the area, depopulated the city, and made the city into a meadow” (Gary Smith, NAC). The Medes may also have been involved. The Medes and Persians destroyed Babylon again in 539 BC. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1062). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 50:3 “For out of the north a nation has come up against her, which shall make her land a desolation, and none shall dwell in it; both man and beast shall flee away.

21 But desert creatures will lie down there,
and owls will fill the houses.
Ostriches will dwell there,
and wild goats will leap about.

  • 13:21–22 These verses describe animals that lived in ruins and desolate places. Ostriches and owls were considered unclean (Lv 11:15–16). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1062). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 34:11 But the hawk and the porcupine shall possess it, the owl and the raven shall dwell in it. He shall stretch the line of confusion over it, and the plumb line of emptiness.

22 Hyenas will howl in the fortresses,
and jackals, in the luxurious palaces.
Babylon’s time is almost up;
her days are almost over.

  • Jer 51:33 For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: The daughter of Babylon is like a threshing floor at the time when it is trodden; yet a little while and the time of her harvest will come.”=t7

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 13:1–22). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 14

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c. 734 B.C.

ISRAEL’S RETURN

1 For the LORD will have compassion on Jacob and will choose Israel again. He will settle them on their own land. The resident alien will join them and be united with the house of Jacob.

  • Psa 102:13 You will arise and have pity on Zion; it is the time to favor her; the appointed time has come.
  • Zec 1:17 Cry out again, Thus says the LORD of hosts: My cities shall again overflow with prosperity, and the LORD will again comfort Zion and again choose Jerusalem.'”

2 The nations will escort Israel and bring it to its homeland. Then the house of Israel will possess them as male and female slaves in the LORD’s land. They will make captives of their captors and will rule over their oppressors.

  • 14:2 The nations had escorted God’s people out of the promised land when they were exiled, so in the future they will escort them back. Power relations will be reversed. Israel had been the slave of the nations; now the nations will serve God’s people.
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1062). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 49:22 Thus says the Lord GOD: “Behold, I will lift up my hand to the nations, and raise my signal to the peoples; and they shall bring your sons in their arms, and your daughters shall be carried on their shoulders.
  • Isa 60:4, 5, 10 Lift up your eyes all around, and see; they all gather together, they come to you; your sons shall come from afar, and your daughters shall be carried on the hip. 5 Then you shall see and be radiant; your heart shall thrill and exult, because the abundance of the sea shall be turned to you, the wealth of the nations shall come to you. 10 Foreigners shall build up your walls, and their kings shall minister to you; for in my wrath I struck you, but in my favor I have had mercy on you.

DOWNFALL OF THE KING OF BABYLON

3 When the LORD gives you rest from your pain, torment, and the hard labor you were forced to do,

4 you will sing this song of contempt about the king of Babylon and say:

  • Isa 13:19 And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the splendor and pomp of the Chaldeans, will be like Sodom and Gomorrah when God overthrew them.
  • Hab 2:6 Shall not all these take up their taunt against him, with scoffing and riddles for him, and say, “Woe to him who heaps up what is not his own— for how long?— and loads himself with pledges!”
  • Rev 18:16 “Alas, alas, for the great city that was clothed in fine linen, in purple and scarlet, adorned with gold, with jewels, and with pearls!

How the oppressor has quieted down,
and how the raging has become quiet!
5 The LORD has broken the staff of the wicked,
the scepter of the rulers.

  • 14:5 The staff and the scepter were held by the king, and they represented his power. The staff may be a shepherd’s staff, and it could refer to the king’s responsibility to shepherd the people. The scepter was an ornamented mace used as a weapon, representing the king’s fearsome power. The fact that God has broken them indicates his superior power. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1063). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Psa 125:3 For the scepter of wickedness shall not rest on the land allotted to the righteous, lest the righteous stretch out their hands to do wrong.

6 It struck the peoples in anger
with unceasing blows.
It subdued the nations in rage
with relentless persecution.

  • 14:6–7 The downfall of Babylon will result in peace and jubilation. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1063). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

7 The whole earth is calm and at rest;
people shout with a ringing cry.
8 Even the cypresses and the cedars of Lebanon
rejoice over you:
“Since you have been laid low,
no lumberjack has come against us.”

  • Isa 55:12 “For you shall go out in joy and be led forth in peace; the mountains and the hills before you shall break forth into singing, and all the trees of the field shall clap their hands.
  • Eze 31:16 I made the nations quake at the sound of its fall, when I cast it down to Sheol with those who go down to the pit. And all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, were comforted in the world below.

Sheol below is eager to greet your coming,
stirring up the spirits of the departed for you—
all the rulers of the earth—
making all the kings of the nations
rise from their thrones.

  • 14:9 Sheol refers to the grave and in some contexts signifies the underworld. In this verse Sheol is personified and pictured as warmly greeting its new citizen, the Babylonian king. Indeed, Sheol will rouse all the spirits of the departed kings to greet the Babylonian king when he arrives in the realm of the dead. Some believe this reference to the activities of the dead is just a poetic device, but it is better understood as evidence that the Israelites at the time of Isaiah had an awareness of the afterlife. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1063). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Eze 32:21 The mighty chiefs shall speak of them, with their helpers, out of the midst of Sheol: ‘They have come down, they lie still, the uncircumcised, slain by the sword.’

10 They all respond to you, saying,
“You too have become as weak as we are;
you have become like us!
11 Your splendor has been brought down to Sheol,
along with the music of your harps.
Maggots are spread out under you,
and worms cover you.”

12 Shining morning star,,a
how you have fallen from the heavens!
You destroyer of nations,
you have been cut down to the ground.

  • 14:12–15 Commentators have often connected this passage to Lk 10:18 and Rv 12:8–9, but the context seems clear that the one fallen from the heavens is not Satan (even though the KJV translated shining morning star as “Lucifer”) but is instead the Babylonian king. If there is a double application the Bible never indicates as much. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1063). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • The language is so framed as to apply to the Babylonian king primarily, and at the same time to shadow forth through him, the great final enemy, the man of sin, Antichrist, of Daniel, St. Paul, and St. John; he alone shall fulfil exhaustively all the lineaments here given. Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D. (1997). Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (Vol. 1, p. 446). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
  • Isa 34:4 All the host of heaven shall rot away, and the skies roll up like a scroll. All their host shall fall, as leaves fall from the vine, like leaves falling from the fig tree.

13 You said to yourself,
“I will ascend to the heavens;
I will set up my throne
above the stars of God.
I will sit on the mount of the gods’ assembly,
in the remotest parts of the North.

  • 14:13 The attempt of a human, no matter how powerful, to take the place of God is the ultimate expression of arrogance. In Canaanite mythology, which is exploited here to make a point about human pride, the mountain of Baal, the chief god, was in the remotest parts of the North. Indeed, his mountain was named Mount North (Hb Zaphon). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1063). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Mat 11:23 And you, Capernaum, will you be exalted to heaven? You will be brought down to Hades. For if the mighty works done in you had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day.
  • Dan 8:10 It grew great, even to the host of heaven. And some of the host and some of the stars it threw down to the ground and trampled on them.
  • Psa 48:2 beautiful in elevation, is the joy of all the earth, Mount Zion, in the far north, the city of the great King.

14 I will ascend above the highest clouds;
I will make myself like the Most High.”

  • Isa 47:8 Now therefore hear this, you lover of pleasures, who sit securely, who say in your heart, “I am, and there is no one besides me; I shall not sit as a widow or know the loss of children”:
  • 2Th 2:4 who opposes and exalts himself against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God.

15 But you will be brought down to Sheol
into the deepest regions of the Pit.

  • Mat 11:23 And you, Capernaum, will you be exalted to heaven? You will be brought down to Hades. For if the mighty works done in you had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day.

16 Those who see you will stare at you;
they will look closely at you:
“Is this the man who caused the earth to tremble,
who shook the kingdoms,
17 who turned the world into a wilderness,
who destroyed its cities
and would not release the prisoners to return home?”
18 All the kings of the nations
lie in splendor, each in his own tomb.

  • 14:18–20 There is even a contrast with other kings, who were buried in fine tombs. This king will not even be given a decent burial but will lie dead on the battlefield, surrounded and even covered by other dead bodies. Again, the idea is that a person who was powerful in life will be reduced to a humiliating circumstance in death. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1063). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

19 But you are thrown out without a grave,
like a worthless branch,
covered by those slain with the sword
and dumped into a rocky pit like a trampled corpse.
20 You will not join them in burial,
because you destroyed your land
and slaughtered your own people.
The offspring of evildoers
will never be mentioned again.

  • Job 18:19 He has no posterity or progeny among his people, and no survivor where he used to live.
  • Psa 21:10 You will destroy their descendants from the earth, and their offspring from among the children of man.
  • Psa 109:13 May his posterity be cut off; may his name be blotted out in the second generation!

21 Prepare a place of slaughter for his sons,
because of the iniquity of their ancestors.
They will never rise up to possess a land
or fill the surface of the earth with cities.

  • 14:21 It was an expectation of a powerful king that, when he died, his son would become the next king and would continue his imperialistic pretensions, but because of the depredations of the fathers, the sons would meet an untimely death. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1064). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Exo 20:5 You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me,
  • Mat 23:35 so that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah the son of Barachiah, whom you murdered between the sanctuary and the altar.

22 “I will rise up against them” — this is the declaration of the LORD of Armies — “and I will cut off from Babylon her reputation, remnant, offspring, and posterity” — this is the LORD’s declaration.

  • 14:22–23 God will bring this judgment. Babylon, particularly its most southern part, was a swampland. God would reduce the entire nation to this in the anger of his judgment. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1064). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Pro 10:7 The memory of the righteous is a blessing, but the name of the wicked will rot.
  • Jer 51:62 and say, ‘O LORD, you have said concerning this place that you will cut it off, so that nothing shall dwell in it, neither man nor beast, and it shall be desolate forever.’
  • 1Ki 14:10 therefore behold, I will bring harm upon the house of Jeroboam and will cut off from Jeroboam every male, both bond and free in Israel, and will burn up the house of Jeroboam, as a man burns up dung until it is all gone.
  • Job 18:19 He has no posterity or progeny among his people, and no survivor where he used to live.

23 “I will make her a swampland and a region for herons, and I will sweep her away with the broom of destruction.”

This is the declaration of the LORD of Armies.

  • Isa 34:11 But the hawk and the porcupine shall possess it, the owl and the raven shall dwell in it. He shall stretch the line of confusion over it, and the plumb line of emptiness.
  • Zep 2:14 Herds shall lie down in her midst, all kinds of beasts; even the owl and the hedgehog shall lodge in her capitals; a voice shall hoot in the window; devastation will be on the threshold; for her cedar work will be laid bare.

ASSYRIA WILL BE DESTROYED

(Oz note: Mesopotamia is sometimes used for Assyria)

24 The LORD of Armies has sworn:

As I have purposed, so it will be;
as I have planned it, so it will happen.

  • 14:24 On a human level Assyria seemed invincible, but God assured his people of his determination to judge the Assyrian people.
  • 14:24–27 The pronouncement shifts focus to the northern center of Mesopotamian power, Assyria. Assyria was the nation that under Tiglath-pileser III reduced the size of the northern kingdom of Israel in the 730s BC and then in 722 BC, under Shalmaneser, deported its citizens. But God will bring even this strong kingdom to an end. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1064). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

25 I will break Assyria in my land;
I will tread him down on my mountain.
Then his yoke will be taken from them,
and his burden will be removed from their shoulders.

  • 14:25 The yoke was a common metaphor for political servitude (10:27; 47:6; 58:6; Jr 27:11; 30:8; Ezk 30:18). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1064). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 10:27 And in that day his burden will depart from your shoulder, and his yoke from your neck; and the yoke will be broken because of the fat.”

26 This is the plan prepared
for the whole earth,
and this is the hand stretched out
against all the nations.
27 The LORD of Armies himself has planned it;
therefore, who can stand in its way?
It is his hand that is outstretched,
so who can turn it back?

  • 2Ch 20:6 and said, “O LORD, God of our fathers, are you not God in heaven? You rule over all the kingdoms of the nations. In your hand are power and might, so that none is able to withstand you.
  • Job 9:12 Behold, he snatches away; who can turn him back? Who will say to him, ‘What are you doing?’
  • Job 23:13 But he is unchangeable, and who can turn him back? What he desires, that he does.
  • Psa 33:11 The counsel of the LORD stands forever, the plans of his heart to all generations.
  • Pro 19:21 Many are the plans in the mind of a man, but it is the purpose of the LORD that will stand.
  • Pro 21:30 No wisdom, no understanding, no counsel can avail against the LORD.
  • Isa 43:13 Also henceforth I am he; there is none who can deliver from my hand; I work, and who can turn it back?”
  • Dan 4:31, 35 While the words were still in the king’s mouth, there fell a voice from heaven, “O King Nebuchadnezzar, to you it is spoken: The kingdom has departed from you, 35 all the inhabitants of the earth are accounted as nothing, and he does according to his will among the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth; and none can stay his hand or say to him, “What have you done?”

A PRONOUNCEMENT AGAINST PHILISTIA

28 In the year that King Ahaz died, this pronouncement came:

  • 14:28–32 The pronouncement against Philistia is the first in a series of pronouncements against nations that were immediate neighbors of Israel. Indeed, Philistia occupied part of the promised land in a region west of Jerusalem and on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The book of Genesis records interaction between the patriarchs and the Philistines (Gn 10:14; 21:32, 34), but it was not until the period of the united monarchy that we hear of a sizeable presence of Philistines in the region. Both Saul and David waged war against them. A remnant of Philistines lasted until the sixth century (Jr 47). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1064). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2Ki 16:20 And Ahaz slept with his fathers and was buried with his fathers in the city of David, and Hezekiah his son reigned in his place.

29 Don’t rejoice, all of you in Philistia,
because the rod of the one who struck you is broken.
For a viper will come from the root of a snake,
and from its egg comes a flying serpent.

    Oz note: a warning to the Philistia nation, to not rejoice because Assyria is currently broken and defeated and weak. Assyria will rebound, they will once again experience a resurgence.

  • 2Ch 26:6 He went out and made war against the Philistines and broke through the wall of Gath and the wall of Jabneh and the wall of Ashdod, and he built cities in the territory of Ashdod and elsewhere among the Philistines.
  • 2Ki 18:8 He struck down the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territory, from watchtower to fortified city.

30 Then the firstborn of the poor will be well fed,
and the impoverished will lie down in safety,
but I will kill your root with hunger,
and your remnant will be slain.

  • 14:30 Because of Philistia’s oppression of Judah, the poor [in Juda] had grown poorer, but with its destruction, there will be a reversal of their [Judah’s] fortunes. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1064). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

31 Wail, you gates! Cry out, city!
Tremble with fear, all Philistia!
For a cloud of dust is coming from the north,
and there is no one missing from the invader’s ranks.

  • 14:31 The cloud of dust coming from the north will be none other than the Assyrian army that will destroy Philistia. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1064). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

32 What answer will be given to the messengers from that nation?
The LORD has founded Zion,
and his oppressed people find refuge in her.

  • 14:32 This verse envisions Philistine envoys trying to convince Judah to join them in resisting the Assyrian army. But Judah’s trust should be in Zion, or God, not foreign alliances. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1064). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Psa 87:1, 5 A Psalm of the Sons of Korah. A Song. On the holy mount stands the city he founded; 5 And of Zion it shall be said, “This one and that one were born in her”; for the Most High himself will establish her.
  • Zec 11:11 So it was annulled on that day, and the sheep traders, who were watching me, knew that it was the word of the LORD.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 14:1–32). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 15

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A PRONOUNCEMENT AGAINST MOAB

  • Oz comments: Moab was a nation to the East of Judah. Often in conflict with their Israelite neighbors.
  • 15:1–16:14 The pronouncement against Moab is the second in a series of pronouncements against nations that were immediate neighbors of Israel. Moab was located in Transjordan opposite Jericho and on the east bank of the Dead Sea. The Bible and other sources (the Moabite Stone, for example) record a long history of conflict between Israel and Moab, whose origins go back to the incestuous union between Lot and his daughter (Gn 19:30–38). See Jr 48 for a similar pronouncement against Moab (also Ezk 25:8–11; Am 2:1–3). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1065). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

1 A pronouncement concerning Moab:

Ar in Moab is devastated,
destroyed in a night.
Kir in Moab is devastated,
destroyed in a night.

  • Oz: Ar was in the middle of Moab; Kir was south of Ar.

2 Dibon went up to its temple
to weep at its high places.
Moab wails on Nebo and at Medeba.
Every head is shaved;
every beard is chopped short.

  • 15:2 Nebo and Medeba were two northern Moabite sites east of the northern tip of the Dead Sea. Nebo was further known as the mountain that Moses ascended to catch sight of the promised land before he died (Dt 34:1). Dibon was further south about midway down the coast of the Dead Sea and some twenty miles inland. Its temple was dedicated to Chemosh, the main god of the Moabites. Shaving hair from the head and beard was an ancient mourning rite. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1065). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

3 In its streets they wear sackcloth;
on its rooftops and in its public squares everyone wails,
falling down and weeping.
4 Heshbon and Elealeh cry out;
their voices are heard as far away as Jahaz.
Therefore the soldiers of Moab cry out,
and they tremble.

  • 15:4 Heshbon and Elealeh were northeastern cities in Moab. Jahaz was further south parallel to Dibon.

5 My heart cries out over Moab,
whose fugitives flee as far as Zoar,
to Eglath-shelishiyah;
they go up the Ascent of Luhith weeping;
they raise a cry of destruction
on the road to Horonaim.

  • 15:5–9 The pronouncement in these verses describes the attempted escape route of those who survived the devastation of northern Moab. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1065). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

6 The Waters of Nimrim are desolate;
the grass is withered, the foliage is gone,
and the vegetation has vanished.
7 So they carry their wealth and belongings
over the Wadi of the Willows.
8 For their cry echoes
throughout the territory of Moab.
Their wailing reaches Eglaim;
their wailing reaches Beer-elim.
9 The Waters of Dibon are full of blood,
but I will bring on Dibon even more than this—
a lion for those who escape from Moab,
and for the survivors in the land.

  • Oz: full of blood indicates the slain in Moab will be plenty.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 15:1–9). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.


Chapter 16

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1 Send lambs to the ruler of the land,
from Sela in the desert
to the mountain of Daughter Zion.

  • 16:1–5 The Moabites will turn to Judah (Zion) to request refuge.
  • 16:1 Sela (commonly identified as the cliff fortress of Petra) was in Edom, so the Moabite refugees apparently will go that far. Then they will send gifts (lambs) to Jerusalem (Zion). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1065). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

2 Like a bird fleeing,
forced from the nest,
the daughters of Moab
will be at the fords of the Arnon.

  • 16:2 The previous verses place the refugees in Edom, so it is odd that they will now say they are at the fords of the Arnon which is in the center of Moab. The metaphor of the bird pushed from the nest presupposes that they were out of their home in Moab. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1065). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

3 Give us counsel and make a decision.
Shelter us at noonday
with shade that is as dark as night.
Hide the refugees;
do not betray the one who flees.

  • 16:3 The request for shelter as well as shade is a request for protection, and it implies that Moab will be willing to become a vassal state of Judah. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1065). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

4 Let my refugees stay with you;
be a refuge for Moab from the aggressor.

When the oppressor has gone,
destruction has ended,
and marauders have vanished from the land,
5 a throne will be established in love,
and one will sit on it faithfully
in the tent of David,
judging and pursuing what is right,
quick to execute justice.

  • 16:5 The pronouncement evokes the picture of a just descendant of David ruling on the throne. The language is a reminder of the Davidic covenant in 2Sm 7:12–16 (cp. Is 9:7; 11:1–9), and it hints at the expectation of the Messiah. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1066). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

6 We have heard of Moab’s pride—
how very proud he is—
his haughtiness, his pride, his arrogance,
and his empty boasting.

  • 16:6–12 In response to Moab’s request for shelter, the prophet can only lament its destruction. This part of the pronouncement is similar in wording and imagery to Jr 48:29–39.
  • 16:6 In keeping with a major theme throughout the book of Isaiah, the heart of Moab’s sin is described as pride. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1066). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

7 Therefore let Moab wail;
let every one of them wail for Moab.
You who are completely devastated, mourn
for the raisin cakes of Kir-hareseth.

  • 16:7 Raisin cakes were a delicacy mentioned in Sg 2:5 along with apples as providing sustenance for lovemaking, though it may not have been an aphrodisiac. Hosea 3:1 suggests that raisin cakes were associated with pagan rituals. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1066). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

8 For Heshbon’s terraced vineyards
and the grapevines of Sibmah have withered.
The rulers of the nations
have trampled its choice vines
that reached as far as Jazer
and spread to the desert.
Their shoots spread out
and reached the sea.

  • 16:8–9 Moab was known for its wine production. Jazer was in the north on the border with Ammon, and Sibmah is of uncertain location. Jazer will weep for itself as God wept for Sibmah.
  • Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1066). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

9 So I join with Jazer
to weep for the vines of Sibmah;
I drench Heshbon and Elealeh with my tears.
Triumphant shouts have fallen silent
over your summer fruit and your harvest.
10 Joy and rejoicing have been removed from the orchard;
no one is singing or shouting for joy in the vineyards.
No one tramples grapes in the winepresses.
I have put an end to the shouting.

  • 16:10 Because of the devastation, joy … singing, and wine will vanish from the land of Moab. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1066). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

11 Therefore I moan like the sound of a lyre for Moab,
as does my innermost being for Kir-heres.
12 When Moab appears
and tires himself out on the high place
and comes to his sanctuary to pray,
it will do him no good.

  1. 16:12 Moabite worship is ineffective. His sanctuary refers to the temple of Chemosh, who was no god and therefore could not respond to prayer. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1066). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

13 This is the message that the LORD previously announced about Moab.

  • 16:13–14 The concluding comment about the Moabite pronouncement declares that it actually had been delivered at an earlier time, but from this moment Moab had only three more years. Presumably a hired worker would count the time until his work was over with great attention and precision. Most scholars associate this Moabite devastation with the Assyrian king Sargon’s campaign against the people of northwest Arabia in approximately 718 BC. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1066). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

14 And now the LORD says, “In three years, as a hired worker counts years, Moab’s splendor will become an object of contempt, in spite of a very large population. And those who are left will be few and weak.”

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 16). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 17

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1 A pronouncement concerning Damascus:

Look, Damascus is no longer a city.
It has become a ruined heap.

  • 17:1–3 The next pronouncement is directed against Damascus, an ancient city and the capital of Syria. From the time of Solomon (1Kg 11:23–25) to the mid-eighth century, there was fighting between Israel and Syria. Isaiah 7 describes how Isaiah encouraged Ahaz of Judah to resist the threat of a Syrian-Ephraimite alliance. Assyria under Tiglath-pileser III absorbed Damascus into its growing empire. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1066). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 49:23 Concerning Damascus: “Hamath and Arpad are confounded, for they have heard bad news; they melt in fear, they are troubled like the sea that cannot be quiet.
  • Amo 1:3 Thus says the LORD: “For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not revoke the punishment, because they have threshed Gilead with threshing sledges of iron.
  • Zec 9:1 The oracle of the word of the LORD is against the land of Hadrach and Damascus is its resting place. For the LORD has an eye on mankind and on all the tribes of Israel,

2 The cities of Aroer are abandoned;
they will be places for flocks.
They will lie down without fear.

  • Jer 7:33 And the dead bodies of this people will be food for the birds of the air, and for the beasts of the earth, and none will frighten them away.

3 The fortress disappears from Ephraim,
and a kingdom from Damascus.
The remnant of Aram will be
like the splendor of the Israelites.
This is the declaration of the LORD of Armies.

  • 17:3 As the next passage demonstrates, it is not good for Aram that its splendor will be like that of Israel (v. 4). Both of these nations will be destroyed.

  • Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1066). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

  • Isa 7:16 For before the boy knows how to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land whose two kings you dread will be deserted.
  • Isa 8:4 for before the boy knows how to cry ‘My father’ or ‘My mother,’ the wealth of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria will be carried away before the king of Assyria.”

JUDGMENT AGAINST ISRAEL

4 On that day
the splendor of Jacob will fade,
and his healthy body will become emaciated.

  • Isa 10:16 Therefore the Lord GOD of hosts will send wasting sickness among his stout warriors, and under his glory a burning will be kindled, like the burning of fire.

5 It will be as if a reaper had gathered standing grain—
his arm harvesting the heads of grain—
and as if one had gleaned heads of grain
in Rephaim Valley.

  • 17:5 A second image of destruction is a reaper picking grain. The Valley of Rephaim was southwest of Jerusalem. The meaning of its name is ominous: “Valley of the Departed.” Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1067). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 51:33 For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: The daughter of Babylon is like a threshing floor at the time when it is trodden; yet a little while and the time of her harvest will come.”

6 Only gleanings will be left in Israel,
as if an olive tree had been beaten
two or three olives at the very top of the tree,
four or five on its fruitful branches.
This is the declaration of the LORD,
the God of Israel.

  • 17:6 The third image of destruction concerns the harvesting of an olive tree. It was shaken, and the fallen olives were eaten. But this image also shows that, though the devastation will be extensive, it will not be total. A remnant, represented by olives that stayed attached to the tree, will survive. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1067). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 24:13 For thus it shall be in the midst of the earth among the nations, as when an olive tree is beaten, as at the gleaning when the grape harvest is done.

7 On that day people will look to their Maker and will turn their eyes to the Holy One of Israel.

  • Mic 7:7 But as for me, I will look to the LORD; I will wait for the God of my salvation; my God will hear me.
  • 17:7–8 On that day (v. 4) points to a time beyond the judgment. Indeed, the judgment of God will cause the remnant to turn from false worship to the worship of the true God who created them. Asherah was a Canaanite goddess of love and war. The plural form (Asherahs) signifies that the reference is to wooden poles or trees associated with her worship. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1067). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

8 They will not look to the altars they made with their hands or to the Asherahs and shrines, they made with their fingers.

9 On that day their strong cities will be
like the abandoned woods and mountaintops
that were abandoned because of the Israelites;
there will be desolation.

  • 17:9 On that day signals the future time of judgment again (see v. 4). The destruction will turn cities into abandoned woods and mountaintops. The reason for their abandonment is the Israelites, who, as v. 10 explains, have sinned by forgetting God.
  • Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1067). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

10 For you have forgotten the God of your salvation,
and you have failed to remember
the rock of your strength;
therefore you will plant beautiful plants
and set out cuttings from exotic vines.

  • 17:10–11 To remember God involves more than a mental activity; it implies obeying and worshiping him. To forget him points to Israel’s disobedience. Isaiah spoke of Israel’s bad end by using a plant analogy. Israel worked hard to grow beautiful plants. They exerted their energy but ended up with nothing. Israel’s self-sufficient efforts will also end up empty. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1067). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Psa 68:19 Blessed be the Lord, who daily bears us up; God is our salvation. Selah.

11 On the day that you plant,
you will help them to grow,
and in the morning
you will help your seed to sprout,
but the harvest will vanish
on the day of disease and incurable pain.

JUDGMENT AGAINST THE NATIONS

12 Ah! The roar of many peoples—
they roar like the roaring of the seas.
The raging of the nations—
they rage like the rumble of rushing water.

  • 17:12 The opening exclamation Ah! is the same word earlier translated as “Oh” (see 1:4). It begins a pronouncement that has the form of a funeral dirge. The nations were agitated; they roared and raged (Ps 2:1–4). Their agitation is compared to the pounding of waves. Rushing water is often an image of social and religious chaos (Ps 18:16; 29:3; 32:6).
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1067). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 6:23 They lay hold on bow and javelin; they are cruel and have no mercy; the sound of them is like the roaring sea; they ride on horses, set in array as a man for battle, against you, O daughter of Zion!”

13 The nations rage like the rumble of a huge torrent.
He rebukes them, and they flee far away,
driven before the wind like chaff on the hills
and like tumbleweeds before a gale.

  • 17:13 Though the nations rage, God’s rebuke will quiet them by driving them away (Pss 2; 48). Chaff was light and wind blew it away, so God’s rebuke will blow away the tumultuous nations. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1067). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Psa 9:5 You have rebuked the nations; you have made the wicked perish; you have blotted out their name forever and ever.
  • Psa 83:13 O my God, make them like whirling dust, like chaff before the wind.
  • Hos 13:3 Therefore they shall be like the morning mist or like the dew that goes early away, like the chaff that swirls from the threshing floor or like smoke from a window.

14 In the evening—sudden terror!
Before morning—it is gone!
This is the fate of those who plunder us
and the lot of those who ravage us.

  • 17:14 God’s judgment comes quickly, in a single day (in the evening … before morning). The victim of the nations (God’s people) speaks here in the first person (us). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1067). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 17:1–14). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 18

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THE LORD’S MESSAGE TO CUSH

1 Woe to the land of buzzing insect wings
beyond the rivers of Cush,

  • Isa 20:4, 5 so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptian captives and the Cushite exiles, both the young and the old, naked and barefoot, with buttocks uncovered, the nakedness of Egypt. 5 Then they shall be dismayed and ashamed because of Cush their hope and of Egypt their boast.
  • Eze 30:4, 5, 9 A sword shall come upon Egypt, and anguish shall be in Cush, when the slain fall in Egypt, and her wealth is carried away, and her foundations are torn down. 5 Cush, and Put, and Lud, and all Arabia, and Libya, and the people of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword. 9 “On that day messengers shall go out from me in ships to terrify the unsuspecting people of Cush, and anguish shall come upon them on the day of Egypt’s doom; for, behold, it comes!
  • Zep 2:12 You also, O Cushites, shall be slain by my sword.
  • Zep 3:10 From beyond the rivers of Cush my worshipers, the daughter of my dispersed ones, shall bring my offering.

2 which sends envoys by sea,
in reed vessels over the water.

Go, swift messengers,
to a nation tall and smooth-skinned,
to a people feared far and near,
a powerful nation with a strange language,
whose land is divided by rivers.
3 All you inhabitants of the world
and you who live on the earth,
when a banner is raised on the mountains, look!
When a ram’s horn sounds, listen!

  • Isa 5:26 He will raise a signal for nations far away, and whistle for them from the ends of the earth; and behold, quickly, speedily they come!

4 For the LORD said to me:

I will quietly look out from my place,
like shimmering heat in sunshine,
like a rain cloud in harvest heat.
5 For before the harvest, when the blossoming is over
and the blossom becomes a ripening grape,
he will cut off the shoots with a pruning knife,
and tear away and remove the branches.
6 They will all be left for the birds of prey on the hills
and for the wild animals of the land.
The birds of prey will spend the summer feeding on them,
and all the wild animals the winter.

7 At that time a gift will be brought to the LORD of Armies from a people tall and smooth-skinned, a people feared far and near, a powerful nation with a strange language, whose land is divided by rivers—to Mount Zion, the place of the name of the LORD of Armies.

  • Psa 68:31 Nobles shall come from Egypt; Cush shall hasten to stretch out her hands to God.
  • Psa 72:10 May the kings of Tarshish and of the coastlands render him tribute; may the kings of Sheba and Seba bring gifts!
  • Isa 16:1 Send the lamb to the ruler of the land, from Sela, by way of the desert, to the mount of the daughter of Zion.
  • Zep 3:10 From beyond the rivers of Cush my worshipers, the daughter of my dispersed ones, shall bring my offering.
  • Mal 1:11 For from the rising of the sun to its setting my name will be great among the nations, and in every place incense will be offered to my name, and a pure offering. For my name will be great among the nations, says the LORD of hosts.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 18:1–19:1). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.


Chapter 19

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A PRONOUNCEMENT AGAINST EGYPT

1 A pronouncement concerning Egypt:

Look, the LORD rides on a swift cloud
and is coming to Egypt.
Egypt’s worthless idols will tremble before him,
and Egypt will lose heart.

  • 19:1 The swift cloud, a storm cloud, is God’s war chariot. The image is found elsewhere in Scripture (Ps 18:10; 68:33; 104:3; Nah 1:3) and even has an older ancient Near Eastern background (the god Baal is often described as a “cloud rider”). Fear strikes the hearts of Egypt’s idols again, just as the plagues were described as a victory over Egypt’s gods at the time of the exodus (Ex 12:12). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1068). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 46:13 The word that the LORD spoke to Jeremiah the prophet about the coming of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon to strike the land of Egypt:
  • Psa 18:10 He rode on a cherub and flew; he came swiftly on the wings of the wind.
  • Psa 104:3 He lays the beams of his chambers on the waters; he makes the clouds his chariot; he rides on the wings of the wind;
  • Exo 12:12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt that night, and I will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD.
  • Jer 43:12 I shall kindle a fire in the temples of the gods of Egypt, and he shall burn them and carry them away captive. And he shall clean the land of Egypt as a shepherd cleans his cloak of vermin, and he shall go away from there in peace.

2 I will provoke Egyptians against Egyptians;
each will fight against his brother
and each against his friend,
city against city, kingdom against kingdom.

  • 19:2 God will use Egyptian civil war to judge that nation. During much of the eighth century BC Egypt was at war with itself. There were conflicts between power centers at Tanis, Thebes, and in the delta. There were also conflicts between Cushite rulers and the rulers at Sais. Not until 712 BC was Egypt united under one pharaoh, the Cushite king Shabaka. Even though conditions through much of the eighth century are described by this verse, the picture is so general that it could apply to a different, future time as well. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1068). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jud 7:22 When they blew the 300 trumpets, the LORD set every man’s sword against his comrade and against all the army. And the army fled as far as Beth-shittah toward Zererah, as far as the border of Abel-meholah, by Tabbath.
  • 1Sa 14:16,20 And the watchmen of Saul in Gibeah of Benjamin looked, and behold, the multitude was dispersing here and there. 20 Then Saul and all the people who were with him rallied and went into the battle. And behold, every Philistine’s sword was against his fellow, and there was very great confusion.
  • 2Ch 20:23 For the men of Ammon and Moab rose against the inhabitants of Mount Seir, devoting them to destruction, and when they had made an end of the inhabitants of Seir, they all helped to destroy one another.

Egypt’s spirit will be disturbed within it,
and I will frustrate its plans.
Then they will inquire of worthless idols, ghosts,
mediums, and spiritists.

  • 19:3 Egyptian religion was filled with many gods and mysterious rites, but this verse describes a darker religious turn born out of frustration. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1068). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 8:19 And when they say to you, “Inquire of the mediums and the necromancers who chirp and mutter,” should not a people inquire of their God? Should they inquire of the dead on behalf of the living?
  • Isa 47:12 Stand fast in your enchantments and your many sorceries, with which you have labored from your youth; perhaps you may be able to succeed; perhaps you may inspire terror.

4 I will hand over Egypt to harsh masters,
and a strong king will rule it.
This is the declaration of the Lord GOD of Armies.

  • 19:4 Egypt’s punishment is to be delivered into the control of harsh masters, a strong king. The lack of specificity does not allow the identification of a concrete historical figure. The description reminds the reader that Egypt at an earlier point had been a harsh master for Israel in bondage. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1068). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 20:4 so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptian captives and the Cushite exiles, both the young and the old, naked and barefoot, with buttocks uncovered, the nakedness of Egypt.
  • Jer 46:26 I will deliver them into the hand of those who seek their life, into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and his officers. Afterward Egypt shall be inhabited as in the days of old, declares the LORD.
  • Eze 29:19 Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Behold, I will give the land of Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; and he shall carry off its wealth and despoil it and plunder it; and it shall be the wages for his army.

5 The water of the sea will dry up,
and the river will be parched and dry.

  • 19:5–7 The waters of the Nile River were the lifeblood of Egypt. Its fresh waters running northward from the south to the delta and out into the Mediterranean Sea were the only source of drinkable water in the country. Egypt’s prosperity was enhanced by the early development of an irrigation system. God’s judgment of Egypt is pictured as a drying up of the water. As a result farmland will vanish. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1068). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 51:36 Therefore thus says the LORD: “Behold, I will plead your cause and take vengeance for you. I will dry up her sea and make her fountain dry,
  • Eze 30:12 And I will dry up the Nile and will sell the land into the hand of evildoers; I will bring desolation upon the land and everything in it, by the hand of foreigners; I am the LORD; I have spoken.

6 The channels will stink;
they will dwindle, and Egypt’s canals will be parched.
Reed and rush will wilt.

  • 2Ki 19:24 I dug wells and drank foreign waters, and I dried up with the sole of my foot all the streams of Egypt.’

7 The reeds by the Nile, by the mouth of the river,
and all the cultivated areas of the Nile
will wither, blow away, and vanish.
8 Then the fishermen will mourn.
All those who cast hooks into the Nile will lament,
and those who spread nets on the water will give up.

  • 19:8 The disappearance of the Nile waters will not only affect farmers but also those who make their living by fishing. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1068). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

9 Those who work with flax will be dismayed;
those combing it and weaving linen will turn pale.

  • 19:9–10 Another major industry associated with Egypt was the production of flax, a fiber from which clothes were made. The loss of this industry would lead to economic depression. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1068). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 1Ki 10:28 And Solomon’s import of horses was from Egypt and Kue, and the king’s traders received them from Kue at a price.
  • Pro 7:16 I have spread my couch with coverings, colored linens from Egyptian linen;

10 Egypt’s weavers will be dejected;
all her wage earners will be demoralized.

11 The princes of Zoan are complete fools;
Pharaoh’s wisest advisers give stupid advice!
How can you say to Pharaoh,
“I am one of the wise,
a student of eastern kings”?

  • 19:11 Zoan was an important city (also known as Tanis), formerly a capital of Egypt. It is mentioned in this verse because it was the residence of Pharaoh’s wisest advisers. Egypt was known as a center of wisdom in the ancient Near East. This pronouncement mocks their wisdom. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Num 13:22 They went up into the Negeb and came to Hebron. Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, the descendants of Anak, were there. (Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt.)

12 Where then are your wise men?
Let them tell you and reveal
what the LORD of Armies has planned against Egypt.

  • 1Co 1:20 Where is the one who is wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the debater of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?

13 The princes of Zoan have been fools;
the princes of Memphis are deceived.
Her tribal chieftains have led Egypt astray.

  • Jer 2:16 Moreover, the men of Memphis and Tahpanhes have shaved the crown of your head.

14 The LORD has mixed within her a spirit of confusion.
The leaders have made Egypt stagger in all she does,
as a drunkard staggers in his vomit.

  • 19:14 Egyptian leaders and wise men are pictured as drunk, in a state of heightened confusion. The image of a drunkard staggering and passing out, representing the demise of God’s enemies, occurs frequently in the Prophets. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 1Ki 22:22 And the LORD said to him, ‘By what means?’ And he said, ‘I will go out, and will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.’ And he said, ‘You are to entice him, and you shall succeed; go out and do so.’
  • Isa 29:10
  • For the LORD has poured out upon you a spirit of deep sleep, and has closed your eyes (the prophets), and covered your heads (the seers).

15 No head or tail, palm or reed,
will be able to do anything for Egypt.

  • 19:15 The expression head or tail, palm or reed points to a totality (9:14). Nothing can protect Egypt against God’s devastating judgment. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 9:14 So the LORD cut off from Israel head and tail, palm branch and reed in one day—

EGYPT WILL KNOW THE LORD

16 On that day Egypt will be like women and will tremble with fear because of the threatening hand of the LORD of Armies when he raises it against them.

  • 16. It was an insult to say that Egypt’s troops will be like women. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 51:30 The warriors of Babylon have ceased fighting; they remain in their strongholds; their strength has failed; they have become women; her dwellings are on fire; her bars are broken.
  • Nah 3:13 Behold, your troops are women in your midst. The gates of your land are wide open to your enemies; fire has devoured your bars.
  • Isa 11:15 And the LORD will utterly destroy the tongue of the Sea of Egypt, and will wave his hand over the River with his scorching breath, and strike it into seven channels, and he will lead people across in sandals.

17 The land of Judah will terrify Egypt; whenever Judah is mentioned, Egypt will tremble because of what the LORD of Armies has planned against it.
18 On that day five cities in the land of Egypt will speak the language of Canaan and swear loyalty to the LORD of Armies. One of the cities will be called the City of the Sun.

  • 19:17 Egypt was always militarily superior to Judah, so Judah was tempted to depend on Egypt for military support, but this verse envisions Egypt fearing Judah, a shameful reversal for this proud nation. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 19:18 On that day, see note at v. 16. While Hebrew settlements were known from the postexilic period on, it is more likely that this verse refers to a conversion of at least some Egyptians to Yahweh. The five cities cannot be identified and may be a symbolic number for “a few.” But the City of the Sun is well known. It was Heliopolis, closely associated with the worship of the sun god. That the worship of the Lord would be taken up in this city is a sign of a radical transformation. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Zep 3:9 “For at that time I will change the speech of the peoples to a pure speech, that all of them may call upon the name of the LORD and serve him with one accord.

19 On that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the center of the land of Egypt and a pillar to the LORD near her border.

  • 19:19 On that day, see note at v. 16. As a sign of an Egyptian conversion to the worship of the true God, there will be an altar set up in the center of the land and a memorial pillar at the border. The land will be dedicated to the worship of the true God. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Gen 28:18 So early in the morning Jacob took the stone that he had put under his head and set it up for a pillar and poured oil on the top of it.
  • Exo 24:4 And Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD. He rose early in the morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.
  • Josh 22:10, 26, 27 And when they came to the region of the Jordan that is in the land of Canaan, the people of Reuben and the people of Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh built there an altar by the Jordan, an altar of imposing size. 26 Therefore we said, ‘Let us now build an altar, not for burnt offering, nor for sacrifice, 27 but to be a witness between us and you, and between our generations after us, that we do perform the service of the LORD in his presence with our burnt offerings and sacrifices and peace offerings, so your children will not say to our children in time to come, “You have no portion in the LORD.”‘

20 It will be a sign and witness to the LORD of Armies in the land of Egypt. When they cry out to the LORD because of their oppressors, he will send them a savior and leader, and he will rescue them.

  • 19:20 The language of this verse is reminiscent of that of the book of Judges. Here, however, sending someone to rescue a repentant nation from an oppressor describes the situation in future Egypt. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Josh 4:20 And those twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up at Gilgal.
  • Josh 22:27 Now to the one half of the tribe of Manasseh Moses had given a possession in Bashan, but to the other half Joshua had given a possession beside their brothers in the land west of the Jordan. And when Joshua sent them away to their homes and blessed them,

21 The LORD will make himself known to Egypt, and Egypt will know the LORD on that day. They will offer sacrifices and offerings; they will make vows to the LORD and fulfill them.

  • Mal 1:11 For from the rising of the sun to its setting my name will be great among the nations, and in every place incense will be offered to my name, and a pure offering. For my name will be great among the nations, says the LORD of hosts.

22 The LORD will strike Egypt, striking and healing. Then they will turn to the LORD, and he will be receptive to their prayers and heal them.

  • 19:22 Egypt’s conversion will be after that country experiences God’s judgment; healing will follow striking. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

23 On that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria. Assyria will go to Egypt, Egypt to Assyria, and Egypt will worship with Assyria.

  • 19:23 Highway is a “favorite metaphor in Isaiah for the removal of alienation and separation (11:16; 33:8; 35:8; 40:3; 49:11; 62:10)” (John Oswalt, Isaiah 1–39). Assyria and Egypt had been enemies for many years, but this amazing passage envisions a time when travel will be free and easy between them. They will be united in the worship of God. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 11:16 And there will be a highway from Assyria for the remnant that remains of his people, as there was for Israel when they came up from the land of Egypt.

24 On that day Israel will form a triple alliance with Egypt and Assyria—a blessing within the land. 25 The LORD of Armies will bless them, saying, “Egypt my people, Assyria my handiwork, and Israel my inheritance are blessed.”

  • 19:24 Israel was a land bridge between Egypt and Assyria. Both of these nations had tried to control Israel to get a foothold against the other. Here Israel is added to Assyria and Egypt in an intimate relationship of love and worship of the Lord. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1069). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Psa 100:3 Know that the LORD, he is God! It is he who made us, and we are his; we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
  • Isa 29:23 For when he sees his children, the work of my hands, in his midst, they will sanctify my name; they will sanctify the Holy One of Jacob and will stand in awe of the God of Israel.
  • Hos 2:23 and I will sow her for myself in the land. And I will have mercy on No Mercy, and I will say to Not My People, ‘You are my people’; and he shall say, ‘You are my God.'”
  • Eph 2:10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 19:1–25). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.


Chapter 20

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NO HELP FROM CUSH OR EGYPT

1 In the year that the chief commander, sent by King Sargon of Assyria, came to Ashdod and attacked and captured it —

  • SARGON: An Assrian general who seized the throne during the turbulence after Shalmaneser IV’s death. Sargon founded the last great Assyrian dynansty, ruling from 722 to 705 B.C. Samaria, capital of the northern kingdom, Israel, was captured by Sargon’s forces shortly after his accession. He began the grim policy of deporting entire populations to help quell his restive territorities, and uprooted most of the ten northern tribes (known as the “lost tribes” from then on). In turn, he imported colonist from Hamath to the cities of Samaria. Sargon was a ruthless soldier and able organizer. He smashed revolts in Palestine, exacted tribute from Egypt, drove out Merodach-baladan of Babylon and made himself king of Babylon. He barely completed his showplace palace at Khorsabad before he was assasinated by one of his solders.
  • 20:1 The events narrated in this verse took place between 713 and 711 BC. Sargon II attacked the Philistine city of Ashdod after its king, Azuri, revolted. Azuri probably thought that Egypt under Shabaka would provide aid. The Assyrians deposed Azuri and placed his brother Ahimeti on the throne. But Ahimeti was deposed by a person named Yamani, so Sargon had to come back. Yamani fled to Egypt, but under the Assyrian threat, Egypt handed the rebel over. This should have served as a warning to others who believed Egypt could provide help against their enemies. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1070). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2Ki 18:17 And the king of Assyria sent the Tartan, the Rab-saris, and the Rabshakeh with a great army from Lachish to King Hezekiah at Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. When they arrived, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is on the highway to the Washer’s Field.

2 during that time the LORD had spoken through Isaiah son of Amoz, saying, “Go, take off your sackcloth and remove the sandals from your feet,” and he did that, going stripped and barefoot —

  • 20:2–4 God commanded Isaiah to perform a symbolic action that would support his spoken pronouncement. Isaiah had been wearing sackcloth, a symbol of mourning, but he was told to go about stripped. This would represent the coming humiliation and destitution of Egypt. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1070). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Zec 13:4 On that day every prophet will be ashamed of his vision when he prophesies. He will not put on a hairy cloak in order to deceive,
  • 1Sa 19:24 And he too stripped off his clothes, and he too prophesied before Samuel and lay naked all that day and all that night. Thus it is said, “Is Saul also among the prophets?”
  • Mic 1:8, 11 For this I will lament and wail; I will go stripped and naked; I will make lamentation like the jackals, and mourning like the ostriches. 11 Pass on your way, inhabitants of Shaphir, in nakedness and shame; the inhabitants of Zaanan do not come out; the lamentation of Beth-ezel shall take away from you its standing place.

3 the LORD said, “As my servant Isaiah has gone stripped and barefoot three years as a sign and omen against Egypt and Cush,

  • Isa 8:18 Behold, I and the children whom the LORD has given me are signs and portents in Israel from the LORD of hosts, who dwells on Mount Zion.

4 so the king of Assyria will lead the captives of Egypt and the exiles of Cush, young and old alike, stripped and barefoot, with bared buttocks—to Egypt’s shame.

  • 2Sa 10:4 So Hanun took David’s servants and shaved off half the beard of each and cut off their garments in the middle, at their hips, and sent them away.
  • Isa 3:17 therefore the Lord will strike with a scab the heads of the daughters of Zion, and the LORD will lay bare their secret parts.
  • Jer 13:22 And if you say in your heart, ‘Why have these things come upon me?’ it is for the greatness of your iniquity that your skirts are lifted up and you suffer violence.
  • Mic 1:11 Pass on your way, inhabitants of Shaphir, in nakedness and shame; the inhabitants of Zaanan do not come out; the lamentation of Beth-ezel shall take away from you its standing place.

5 Those who made Cush their hope and Egypt their boast will be dismayed and ashamed.

  • 20:5 Those who trusted Egypt and Cush for help against their enemies would be sorely disappointed. God was the only proper object of the people’s trust. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1070). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2Ki 18:21 Behold, you are trusting now in Egypt, that broken reed of a staff, which will pierce the hand of any man who leans on it. Such is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all who trust in him.

6 And the inhabitants of this coastland will say on that day, ‘Look, this is what has happened to those we relied on and fled to for help to rescue us from the king of Assyria! Now, how will we escape?’ ”

  • 20:6 The pronouncement envisioned other nations coming to recognize that Egypt was an unreliable ally. The implicit message is that Judah should come to the same realization. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1070). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 47:4 because of the day that is coming to destroy all the Philistines, to cut off from Tyre and Sidon every helper that remains. For the LORD is destroying the Philistines, the remnant of the coastland of Caphtor.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 20:1–6). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /> Isaiah Chap 21<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
Chapter 21

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A JUDGMENT ON Babylon

  • 21:1–10 The pronouncement in these verses was against the desert by the sea. This designation is ambiguous when first stated, but the end of the passage (v. 9) makes it clear that Babylon was meant. The description of the fall of Babylon is mysterious. Debate surrounds whether it anticipates an Assyrian defeat of Babylon in the late eighth or early seventh century BC (three times: 710, 700, 689) or the ultimate defeat of Babylon by Persia in 539 BC. A good argument can be made that both the earlier and the later defeats are alluded to in this prophecy. The intention of this prophecy at the time of Isaiah was to show that Babylon would not be an effective ally against Assyria as even King Hezekiah of Judah at one point had hoped (chap. 39). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1070). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Zec 9:14 Then the LORD will appear over them, and his arrow will go forth like lightning; the Lord GOD will sound the trumpet and will march forth in the whirlwinds of the south.
  • Babylonian Empire pictures on the web.
  • Assyrian Empire pictures on the web.

1 A pronouncement concerning the desert by the sea:

Like storms that pass over the Negev,
it comes from the desert, from the land of terror.

  • 21:1 The desert (lit “wilderness”) by the sea in connection with Babylon could be taken as a reference to the area in the extreme south of Mesopotamia, the swampland next to what today is called the Persian Gulf. This area was the center of Babylonian revolts against Assyria (sometimes called Mesopotamia) at the end of the eighth century (Merodach-baladan) as well as in the late part of the seventh century (Nabopolassar). The Negev was to the extreme south of Jerusalem and was itself a wilderness area. The storms that pass through that area even today are particularly violent. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1070). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

2 A troubling vision is declared to me:
“The treacherous one acts treacherously,
and the destroyer destroys.
Advance, Elam! Lay siege, you Medes!
I will put an end to all the groaning.”

  • 21:2 Elam and Media (Medes) were countries on the Iranian plateau east of Babylon. In this verse they are called to advance, but against whom? In the late eighth century BC, they were allies with Babylon and would have fought against Assyria. In 539 BC they were both parts of the Persian Empire that defeated Babylon. Perhaps the ambiguity intends the reader at a later time to recognize allusions to both events. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1070). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 33:1 Ah, you destroyer, who yourself have not been destroyed, you traitor, whom none has betrayed! When you have ceased to destroy, you will be destroyed; and when you have finished betraying, they will betray you.
  • Isa 13:17 Behold, I am stirring up the Medes against them, who have no regard for silver and do not delight in gold.
  • Jer 49:34The word of the LORD that came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning Elam, in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah.

3 Therefore I am filled with anguish.
Pain grips me, like the pain of a woman in labor.
I am too perplexed to hear,
too dismayed to see.

  • 21:3 Isaiah used the theme of a woman in labor, one widely used in prophetic literature (13:8; Jr 4:31; 6:24; 22:23; 30:6; Mc 4:9). This was a graphic image of the pain and distress that would fall on the object of God’s warring activity. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1070). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 15:5 My heart cries out for Moab; her fugitives flee to Zoar, to Eglath-shelishiyah. For at the ascent of Luhith they go up weeping; on the road to Horonaim they raise a cry of destruction;
  • Isa 16:11 Therefore my inner parts moan like a lyre for Moab, and my inmost self for Kir-hareseth.
  • Isa 13:8 They will be dismayed: pangs and agony will seize them; they will be in anguish like a woman in labor. They will look aghast at one another; their faces will be aflame.

4 My heart staggers;
horror terrifies me.
He has turned my last glimmer of hope
into sheer terror.

  • Deu 28:67 In the morning you shall say, ‘If only it were evening!’ and at evening you shall say, ‘If only it were morning!’ because of the dread that your heart shall feel, and the sights that your eyes shall see.

5 Prepare a table, and spread out a carpet!
Eat and drink!
Rise up, you princes, and oil the shields!

  • 21:5 Attack would come in the midst of celebrative feasting, reminiscent of Dn 5 when Belshazzar ate and drank on the eve of Babylon’s destruction. It is unclear whether such banqueting indicated a lack of preparedness for battle or whether it was a pre-battle rally (Est 1). The reference to the oiling of shields may indicate the latter since this was done before battle. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (pp. 1070–1071). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Dan 5:5 Immediately the fingers of a human hand appeared and wrote on the plaster of the wall of the king’s palace, opposite the lampstand. And the king saw the hand as it wrote.

6 For the Lord has said to me,
“Go, post a lookout;
let him report what he sees.
7 When he sees riders—
pairs of horsemen,
riders on donkeys,
riders on camels—
he must pay close attention.”
8 Then the lookout reported,
“Lord, I stand on the watchtower all day,
and I stay at my post all night.
9 Look, riders come—
horsemen in pairs.”
And he answered, saying,
Babylon has fallen, has fallen.
All the images of her gods
have been shattered on the ground.”

  • 21:9 The attacking army returned intact with the announcement that Babylon has fallen. The focus is on the defeat of Babylon’s gods. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1071). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 51:8 Suddenly Babylon has fallen and been broken; wail for her! Take balm for her pain; perhaps she may be healed.
  • Rev 14:8 Another angel, a second, followed, saying, “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, she who made all nations drink the wine of the passion of her sexual immorality.”
  • Rev 18:2 And he called out with a mighty voice, “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great! She has become a dwelling place for demons, a haunt for every unclean spirit, a haunt for every unclean bird, a haunt for every unclean and detestable beast.
  • Isa 46:1 Bel bows down; Nebo stoops; their idols are on beasts and livestock; these things you carry are borne as burdens on weary beasts.
  • Jer 50:2 “Declare among the nations and proclaim, set up a banner and proclaim, conceal it not, and say: ‘Babylon is taken, Bel is put to shame, Merodach is dismayed. Her images are put to shame, her idols are dismayed.’
  • Jer 51:44 And I will punish Bel in Babylon, and take out of his mouth what he has swallowed. The nations shall no longer flow to him; the wall of Babylon has fallen.

10 My people who have been crushed
on the threshing floor,
I have declared to you
what I have heard from the LORD of Armies,
the God of Israel.

  • 21:10 The crushed people were the people of Israel. The prophet confirmed to them that the destruction of Babylon had been announced by none other than God himself. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1071). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 51:33 For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: The daughter of Babylon is like a threshing floor at the time when it is trodden; yet a little while and the time of her harvest will come.”

A PRONOUNCEMENT AGAINST DUMAH

11 A pronouncement concerning Dumah:

One calls to me from Seir,
Watchman, what is left of the night?
Watchman, what is left of the night?”

  • Jer 49:7,8 Concerning Edom. Thus says the LORD of hosts: “Is wisdom no more in Teman? Has counsel perished from the prudent? Has their wisdom vanished? 8 Flee, turn back, dwell in the depths, O inhabitants of Dedan! For I will bring the calamity of Esau upon him, the time when I punish him.
  • Eze 35:2 “Son of man, set your face against Mount Seir, and prophesy against it,

12 The watchman said,
“Morning has come, and also night.
If you want to ask, ask!
Come back again.”

  • 21:11–12 Dumah was an oasis in Arabia that controlled trade routes. In the eighth century it was an object of Assyrian invasion under Sennacherib and was an ally of Babylon. In the sixth century when the last Babylonian king, Nabonidus, moved to Tema in Arabia, he tried to control all the trade routes in that region. Besides designating an oasis in north central Arabia, the Hebrew word Dumah means “silence,” like the silence of death (Ps 94:17). Thus, the name sets the mood for the pronouncement. The Greek translation of the OT understood Dumah as a reference to Edom. Seir is a reference to an important part of Edom, but here Edom spoke to Dumah. The theme of the watchman continues from the preceding pronouncement. The question the watchman was asked is enigmatic, but it may be a way of asking how much longer the suffering (night) would last. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1071). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

A PRONOUNCEMENT AGAINST ARABIA

13 A pronouncement concerning Arabia:

  • 21:13–17 Dedan, Tema, and Kedar are references to geographical and/or political entities in northern Arabia. They were likely allies of Babylon during the eighth century BC. Brevard Childs (Isaiah) has pointed out that these tribes were defeated by Assyria between 691–689 BC. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1071). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 49:28 Concerning Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon struck down. Thus says the LORD: “Rise up, advance against Kedar! Destroy the people of the east!

In the desert brush
you will camp for the night,
you caravans of Dedanites.
14 Bring water for the thirsty.
The inhabitants of the land of Tema
meet the refugees with food.
15 For they have fled from swords,
from the drawn sword,
from the bow that is strung,
and from the stress of battle.

16 For the Lord said this to me: “Within one year, as a hired worker counts years, all the glory of Kedar will be gone. 17 The remaining Kedarite archers will be few in number.” For the LORD, the God of Israel, has spoken.

  • Isa 16:14 But now the LORD has spoken, saying, “In three years, like the years of a hired worker, the glory of Moab will be brought into contempt, in spite of all his great multitude, and those who remain will be very few and feeble.”
  • Psa 120:5 Woe to me, that I sojourn in Meshech, that I dwell among the tents of Kedar!
  • Isa 60:7 All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered to you; the rams of Nebaioth shall minister to you; they shall come up with acceptance on my altar, and I will beautify my beautiful house.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 21:1–17). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 22

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A PRONOUNCEMENT AGAINST JERUSALEM

1 A pronouncement concerning the Valley of Vision:

What’s the matter with you?
Why have all of you gone up to the rooftops?

  • 22:1 From later in the pronouncement, it is clear that the Valley of Vision is a reference to Jerusalem, even though this name is not used elsewhere of the city. It could be satirical, that is, the Valley of Vision was blind to the divine purpose. The significance of the rooftops is also difficult, but it probably refers to getting a better perspective on the withdrawal of a besieging army. Most think the historical reference is to the withdrawal of the Assyrian army from Jerusalem in 701 BC (chaps. 36–37).Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1071). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

2 The noisy city, the jubilant town,
is filled with celebration.
Your dead did not die by the sword;
they were not killed in battle.

  • 22:2 The inhabitants were jubilant because the attacking army had withdrawn from its siege. The reference to those who died apart from battle may be to those who starved or contracted disease during the siege. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1071). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 32:13for the soil of my people growing up in thorns and briers, yes, for all the joyous houses in the exultant city.

3 All your rulers have fled together,
captured without a bow.
All your fugitives were captured together;
they had fled far away.

  • 22:3 The description of fleeing rulers does not accord with what we know about the siege of 701 BC, but some connect it with an Assyrian account of the battle that mentions the capture of some of Hezekiah’s paid troops. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1071). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

4 Therefore I said,
“Look away from me! Let me weep bitterly!
Do not try to comfort me
about the destruction of my dear people.”

  • 22:4–5 The prophet Isaiah (the first-person speaker) did not share the joy of the city. After all, although the siege was lifted, people died. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 4:19 My anguish, my anguish! I writhe in pain! Oh the walls of my heart! My heart is beating wildly; I cannot keep silent, for I hear the sound of the trumpet, the alarm of war.

5 For the Lord GOD of Armies
had a day of tumult, trampling, and confusion
in the Valley of Vision—
people shouting and crying to the mountains;

  • Isa 37:3 They said to him, “Thus says Hezekiah, ‘This day is a day of distress, of rebuke, and of disgrace; children have come to the point of birth, and there is no strength to bring them forth.
  • Lam 1:5 Her foes have become the head; her enemies prosper, because the LORD has afflicted her for the multitude of her transgressions; her children have gone away, captives before the foe.

6 Elam took up a quiver
with chariots and horsemen,
and Kir uncovered the shield.

  • Jer 49:35 Thus says the LORD of hosts: “Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the mainstay of their might.
  • Isa 15:1 An oracle concerning Moab. Because Ar of Moab is laid waste in a night, Moab is undone; because Kir of Moab is laid waste in a night, Moab is undone.

7 Your best valleys were full of chariots,
and horsemen were positioned at the city gates.

  • 1Ki 7:2 He built the House of the Forest of Lebanon. Its length was a hundred cubits and its breadth fifty cubits and its height thirty cubits, and it was built on four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams on the pillars.
  • 1Ki 10:17 And he made 300 shields of beaten gold; three minas of gold went into each shield. And the king put them in the House of the Forest of Lebanon.
  • 22:6–7 Elam (located on the Iranian plateau east of Babylon) and Kir (of uncertain location) appear to have fought along with the Assyrians. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

8 He removed the defenses of Judah.

On that day you looked to the weapons in the House of the Forest.

  • 22:8 The House of the Forest is likely the same as the storehouse in the palace complex known as the House of the Forest of Lebanon (1Kg 7:1–12). Weapons were stored there. The people should have been looking to God for help, but they put their trust in their weapons instead. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

9 You saw that there were many breaches in the walls of the city of David. You collected water from the lower pool. 10 You counted the houses of Jerusalem so that you could tear them down to fortify the wall. 11 You made a reservoir between the walls for the water of the ancient pool, but you did not look to the one who made it, or consider the one who created it long ago.

  • 22:9–11 Refortifying the wall with construction materials taken from demolished homes and building an emergency reservoir within the city are taken again by the prophet as a sign of human self-reliance. They should have been looking to God for help. After all, he was the one who created it long ago. The reference to collecting water from the lower pool may connect to the fact that Hezekiah built a tunnel to bring water inside the city walls (2Kg 20:20). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Neh 3:16 After him Nehemiah the son of Azbuk, ruler of half the district of Beth-zur, repaired to a point opposite the tombs of David, as far as the artificial pool, and as far as the house of the mighty men.

12 On that day the Lord GOD of Armies
called for weeping, for wailing, for shaven heads,
and for the wearing of sackcloth.

  • Oz: all signs of mourning.
  • Joe 1:13 Put on sackcloth and lament, O priests; wail, O ministers of the altar. Go in, pass the night in sackcloth, O ministers of my God! Because grain offering and drink offering are withheld from the house of your God.
  • Ezr 9:3 As soon as I heard this, I tore my garment and my cloak and pulled hair from my head and beard and sat appalled.
  • Isa 15:2 He has gone up to the temple, and to Dibon, to the high places to weep; over Nebo and over Medeba Moab wails. On every head is baldness; every beard is shorn;
  • Mic 1:16 Make yourselves bald and cut off your hair, for the children of your delight; make yourselves as bald as the eagle, for they shall go from you into exile.

13 But look: joy and gladness,
butchering of cattle, slaughtering of sheep and goats,
eating of meat, and drinking of wine—
“Let’s eat and drink, for tomorrow we die!”

  • Isa 56:12 “Come,” they say, “let me get wine; let us fill ourselves with strong drink; and tomorrow will be like this day, great beyond measure.”
  • 1Co 15:32 What do I gain if, humanly speaking, I fought with beasts at Ephesus? If the dead are not raised, “Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die.”

14 The LORD of Armies has directly revealed to me:
“This iniquity will not be wiped out for you people as long as you live.”
The Lord GOD of Armies has spoken.

  • 22:13–14 God called for mourning (v. 12), but the people celebrated the lifting of the siege on the city. The people lived for the moment. The fact that the iniquity of the people would never be removed boded poorly for the future of the city. Paul quotes v. 13 in 1Co 15:32. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 5:9 The LORD of hosts has sworn in my hearing: “Surely many houses shall be desolate, large and beautiful houses, without inhabitant.
  • 1Sa 3:14 Therefore I swear to the house of Eli that the iniquity of Eli’s house shall not be atoned for by sacrifice or offering forever.”
  • Eze 24:13 On account of your unclean lewdness, because I would have cleansed you and you were not cleansed from your uncleanness, you shall not be cleansed anymore till I have satisfied my fury upon you.

A PRONOUNCEMENT AGAINST SHEBNA

  • 22:15–25 The pronouncement against Jerusalem in these verses concludes with an evaluation of two stewards. Shebna abused his office and would be replaced by Eliakim. Eliakim was competent, and Isaiah praised him, but even Eliakim eventually failed. The message is that politicians cannot be relied on to solve problems that only God can solve. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

15 The Lord GOD of Armies said, “Go to Shebna, that steward who is in charge of the palace, and say to him:

  • 22:15 The office of steward was an important role, analogous to an American president’s chief of staff. Shebna is known elsewhere as a high-ranking officer in the court of Hezekiah (36:3, 11, 22; 37:2; 2Kg 18:18; 19:2), though in these passages he is called a “secretary” which may indicate that he had been demoted. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2Ki 18:37 Then Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was over the household, and Shebna the secretary, and Joah the son of Asaph, the recorder, came to Hezekiah with their clothes torn and told him the words of the Rabshakeh.
  • Isa 36:3 And there came out to him Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was over the household, and Shebna the secretary, and Joah the son of Asaph, the recorder.

16 What are you doing here? Who authorized you to carve out a tomb for yourself here, carving your tomb on the height and cutting a resting place for yourself out of rock?

  • 22:16 Shebna was concerned more about himself and his own glory than with the well-being of the city. Rock-hewn tombs from antiquity may be seen today all around Jerusalem, but particularly east of the city. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2Sa 18:18 Now Absalom in his lifetime had taken and set up for himself the pillar that is in the King’s Valley, for he said, “I have no son to keep my name in remembrance.” He called the pillar after his own name, and it is called Absalom’s monument to this day.
  • Mat 26:70 But he denied it before them all, saying, “I do not know what you mean.”

17 Look, you strong man! The LORD is about to shake you violently. He will take hold of you,

  • Est 7:8 And the king returned from the palace garden to the place where they were drinking wine, as Haman was falling on the couch where Esther was. And the king said, “Will he even assault the queen in my presence, in my own house?” As the word left the mouth of the king, they covered Haman’s face.

18 wind you up into a ball, and sling you into a wide land. There you will die, and there your glorious chariots will be a disgrace to the house of your lord.

  • 22:18 Shebna not only exalted himself by the type of tomb he was building, but also by driving glorious chariots. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

19 I will remove you from your office; you will be ousted from your position.
20 “On that day I will call for my servant, Eliakim son of Hilkiah.

  • 22:20 Shebna’s replacement will be Eliakim son of Hilkiah, also known as a high official in King Hezekiah’s court (36:3, 11, 22; 37:22; 2Kg 18:18, 26, 37). He will be God’s servant, a title used elsewhere for Isaiah (20:3). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 2Ki 18:18

21 I will clothe him with your robe and tie your sash around him. I will hand your authority over to him, and he will be like a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah.

  • 22:21 The robe and sash were symbols of the office of steward. As opposed to self-serving Shebna, Eliakim will function like a father, looking after the needs of his people. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1072). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

22 I will place the key of the house of David on his shoulder; what he opens, no one can close; what he closes, no one can open.

  • Job 12:14 If he tears down, none can rebuild; if he shuts a man in, none can open.

23 I will drive him, like a peg, into a firm place. He will be a throne of honor for his father’s family.

  • Ezr 9:8 But now for a brief moment favor has been shown by the LORD our God, to leave us a remnant and to give us a secure hold within his holy place, that our God may brighten our eyes and grant us a little reviving in our slavery.

24 They will hang on him all the glory of his father’s family: the descendants and the offshoots—all the small vessels, from bowls to every kind of jar. 25 On that day”—the declaration of the LORD of Armies—“the peg that was driven into a firm place will give way, be cut off, and fall, and the load on it will be destroyed.” Indeed, the LORD has spoken.

  • 22:24–25 Eliakim is compared to a shelf on which his family put a tremendous burden. The weight ultimately sheared off the peg, causing the shelf (Eliakim) to crash and its contents (his family’s burdens) to break. The message of the pronouncement seems to be that the people could not trust even a competent, well-intentioned person to resolve Jerusalem’s problems. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 22:1–25). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

Chapter 23

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A PRONOUNCEMENT AGAINST TYRE

Oz note: Tyre and Sidon were high-traffic port cities on the Mediterranean Sea.


1 A pronouncement concerning Tyre:

Wail, ships of Tarshish,
for your haven has been destroyed.
Word has reached them from the land of Cyprus.

  • 23:1 Tyre was the southernmost major city of Phoenicia. It was a wealthy city due to its development and control of sea trade. As an island city (with overflow population living on the mainland) its major port was easily protected. Tyre had established a trading colony on Tarshish, thought to be in what is modern Spain (Tartessus). The ships of Tarshish were particularly impressive, since they traveled so far between Tyre and Iberia. The destruction of Tyre prophetically described in this pronouncement is difficult to pin down from the description made here. In the latter part of the eighth century and the early seventh century BC, the Assyrians tried to take Tyre a number of times. However, the pronouncement may also look forward to Nebuchadnezzar’s attack on Tyre (including a thirteen-year siege) in the sixth century and perhaps even to the final destruction of Tyre by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. Cyprus was a large island about seventy-five miles west of Tyre and would have been the last port of call before reaching Tyre. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Jer 25:22 all the kings of Tyre, all the kings of Sidon, and the kings of the coastland across the sea;
  • Jer 47:4 because of the day that is coming to destroy all the Philistines, to cut off from Tyre and Sidon every helper that remains. For the LORD is destroying the Philistines, the remnant of the coastland of Caphtor.
  • Amo 1:9 Thus says the LORD: “For three transgressions of Tyre, and for four, I will not revoke the punishment, because they delivered up a whole people to Edom, and did not remember the covenant of brotherhood.
  • Zec 9:2, 4 and on Hamath also, which borders on it, Tyre and Sidon, though they are very wise. 4 But behold, the Lord will strip her of her possessions and strike down her power on the sea, and she shall be devoured by fire.

2 Mourn, inhabitants of the coastland,
you merchants of Sidon;
your agents have crossed the sea

  • 23:2 Sidon was another important Phoenician trade port north of Tyre. Its mention indicates that, though the pronouncement was specifically directed toward Tyre (the city closest to Jerusalem), the whole of Phoenicia was under judgment. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

3 over deep water.
Tyre’s revenue was the grain from Shihor—
the harvest of the Nile.
She was the merchant among the nations.

  • Eze 27:3 and say to Tyre, who dwells at the entrances to the sea, merchant of the peoples to many coastlands, thus says the Lord GOD: “O Tyre, you have said, ‘I am perfect in beauty.’
  • 23:3 Shihor is a name for the Nile valley. Phoenicia carried on trade with Egypt during much of its history. Egypt was well known for its production and export of grain. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

4 Be ashamed, Sidon, the stronghold of the sea,
for the sea has spoken:
“I have not been in labor or given birth.
I have not raised young men
or brought up young women.”

  • 23:4 The sea here is personified, perhaps evoking the idea that the sea (Hb yam) was an important god and rival of the Canaanite god Baal (though the following description fits a female much better). In any case, the sea will lament for its barrenness, perhaps a reference to the loss of Sidon.
  • Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

5 When the news reaches Egypt,
they will be in anguish over the news about Tyre.

  • Isa 19:16 In that day the Egyptians will be like women, and tremble with fear before the hand that the LORD of hosts shakes over them.

6 Cross over to Tarshish;
wail, inhabitants of the coastland!

  • 23:6 Because of the destruction of the Phoenician coastland, its inhabitants will have to disperse, some perhaps going as far as the trading colony of Tarshish Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

7 Is this your jubilant city,
whose origin was in ancient times,
whose feet have taken her
to reside far away?

  • 23:7 The jubilant city is Tyre, the ancient city that established Tarshish as a colony. After it is destroyed, its inhabitants will flee to Tarshish. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • Isa 22:2 you who are full of shoutings, tumultuous city, exultant town? Your slain are not slain with the sword or dead in battle.

8 Who planned this against Tyre,
the bestower of crowns,
whose traders are princes,
whose merchants are the honored ones of the earth?

  • 23:8 Tyre’s wealth had brought her great power and prestige.
  • Eze 28:2, 12 “Son of man, say to the prince of Tyre, Thus says the Lord GOD: “Because your heart is proud, and you have said, ‘I am a god, I sit in the seat of the gods, in the heart of the seas,’ yet you are but a man, and no god, though you make your heart like the heart of a god— 12 “Son of man, raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre, and say to him, Thus says the Lord GOD: “You were the signet of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty.

9 The LORD of Armies planned it,
to desecrate all its glorious beauty,
to disgrace all the honored ones of the earth.

  • Oz note: God is sovereign over all nations!

10 Overflow your land like the Nile, daughter of Tarshish;
there is no longer anything to restrain you.

  • 23:10 The Nile’s waters overflow annually, depositing a rich, fertile soil. As a result, the Nile also overflowed with human population. Now Tarshish will overflow with all the refugees from the destroyed cities of the Phoenician coastland. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 11 He stretched out his hand over the sea;
    he made kingdoms tremble.
    The LORD has commanded
    that the Canaanite fortresses be destroyed.

    • 23:11 God determines the fate of even the most powerful cities and strikes terror in the hearts of the nations (Ps 2). Phoenicia was considered a part of Canaan, and its fortresses may be referred to as Canaanite fortresses. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

    12 He said,
    “You will not celebrate anymore,
    ravished young woman, daughter of Sidon.
    Get up and cross over to Cyprus—
    even there you will have no rest!”

    • 23:12 Sidon is compared to a rape victim, who must leave to seek refuge in Cyprus. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1073). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Rev 18:22 and the sound of harpists and musicians, of flute players and trumpeters, will be heard in you no more, and a craftsman of any craft will be found in you no more, and the sound of the mill will be heard in you no more,

    13 Look at the land of the Chaldeans—
    a people who no longer exist.
    Assyria destined it for desert creatures.
    They set up their siege towers
    and stripped its palaces.
    They made it a ruin.

    • 23:13–14 An analogy is drawn between the fall of the Chaldeans (the Aramaic-speaking tribe that produced the two rebels against Assyria—Merodach-baladan at the end of the eighth century and Nabopolassar at the end of the seventh century BC) and the fall of Tyre. Since the verse goes on to imply the fall of Babylon at the hands of the Assyrians, it probably refers to the first of these, not the second in which Babylon was victorious. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1074). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Psa 72:9 May desert tribes bow down before him, and his enemies lick the dust!

    14 Wail, ships of Tarshish,
    because your fortress is destroyed!

    15 On that day Tyre will be forgotten for seventy years—the life span of one king. At the end of seventy years, what the song says about the prostitute will happen to Tyre:

    • 23:15–18 The pronouncement against Tyre ends with a note about its restoration. It also suggests that the city will turn to the Lord. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1074). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • 23:15 Interestingly, seventy years is cited as the length of the exile and punishment of the people of God (Jr 25:12; Dn 9:2; Zch 1:12).

    16 Pick up your lyre,
    stroll through the city,
    you forgotten prostitute.
    Play skillfully,
    sing many a song
    so that you will be remembered.

    • 23:16 This song may have been popular in ancient Israel. It speaks of an old forgotten prostitute who tried to attract attention by singing songs. The revived Tyre is like this prostitute. The image of the prostitute suggests Tyre itself, since it was a trading city. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1074). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

    17 And at the end of the seventy years, the LORD will restore Tyre and she will go back into business, prostituting herself with all the kingdoms of the world throughout the earth.

    • Rev 17:2

    18 But her profits and wages will be dedicated to the LORD. They will not be stored or saved, for her profit will go to those who live in the LORD’s presence, to provide them with ample food and sacred clothing.

    • Zec 14:20, 21 with whom the kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality, and with the wine of whose sexual immorality the dwellers on earth have become drunk.”

    Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 23:1–18). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.


    Chapter 24

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    THE EARTH JUDGED

    1 Look, the LORD is stripping the earth bare
    and making it desolate.
    He will twist its surface and scatter its inhabitants:

    • 24:1 While chaps. 13–23 focused on the judgment of particular nations, chaps. 24–27 speak of the whole earth (a word repeated twenty-three times) as the object of God’s punishment. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1074). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

    2 people and priest alike,
    servant and master,
    female servant and mistress,
    buyer and seller,
    lender and borrower,
    creditor and debtor.

    • Oz note: “Everyone”, no matter who you are, will be judged.
    • Hos 4:9 And it shall be like people, like priest; I will punish them for their ways and repay them for their deeds.
    • Eze 7:12, 13 The time has come; the day has arrived. Let not the buyer rejoice, nor the seller mourn, for wrath is upon all their multitude. 13 For the seller shall not return to what he has sold, while they live. For the vision concerns all their multitude; it shall not turn back; and because of his iniquity, none can maintain his life.

    3 The earth will be stripped completely bare
    and will be totally plundered,
    for the LORD has spoken this message.
    4 The earth mourns and withers;
    the world wastes away and withers;
    the exalted people of the earth waste away.
    5 The earth is polluted by its inhabitants,
    for they have transgressed teachings,
    overstepped decrees,
    and broken the permanent covenant.

    • 24:5 The cause of this horrific judgment is human sin. The people have broken the covenant between God and Israel (Ex 19–24). The reference to permanent covenant reminds the reader of the Noahic covenant between God and all the inhabitants of the earth (Gn 9:16). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1074). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Gen 3:17 And to Adam he said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife and have eaten of the tree of which I commanded you, ‘You shall not eat of it,’ cursed is the ground because of you; in pain you shall eat of it all the days of your life;
    • Num 35:33 The cities shall be theirs to dwell in, and their pasturelands shall be for their cattle and for their livestock and for all their beasts

    6 Therefore a curse has consumed the earth,
    and its inhabitants have become guilty;
    the earth’s inhabitants have been burned,
    and only a few survive.

    • 24:6 The covenant form called for a curse if the law was broken (see Dt 27–28 in relationship to Dt 5–26). The remnant theme is seen here in the fact that a few will survive. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1074). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Mal 4:6 And he will turn the hearts of fathers to their children and the hearts of children to their fathers, lest I come and strike the land with a decree of utter destruction.”

    7 The new wine mourns;
    the vine withers.
    All the carousers now groan.

    • 24:7–9 God’s judgment brings joyful singing and drinking alcoholic beverages to an end. Both of these involved celebration. Wine and beer were the two main types of alcoholic drinks in the ancient Near East. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1074). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Isa 16:8, 9 For the fields of Heshbon languish, and the vine of Sibmah; the lords of the nations have struck down its branches, which reached to Jazer and strayed to the desert; its shoots spread abroad and passed over the sea. 9 Therefore I weep with the weeping of Jazer for the vine of Sibmah; I drench you with my tears, O Heshbon and Elealeh; for over your summer fruit and your harvest the shout has ceased.
    • Joe 1:10, 12 Joe 1:10 The fields are destroyed, the ground mourns, because the grain is destroyed, the wine dries up, the oil languishes. Joe 1:12 The vine dries up; the fig tree languishes. Pomegranate, palm, and apple, all the trees of the field are dried up, and gladness dries up from the children of man.

    8 The joyful tambourines have ceased.
    The noise of the jubilant has stopped.
    The joyful lyre has ceased.

    • Jer 7:34 And I will silence in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, for the land shall become a waste.
    • Jer 16:9 For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will silence in this place, before your eyes and in your days, the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride.
    • Jer 25:10 Moreover, I will banish from them the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the grinding of the millstones and the light of the lamp.
    • Eze 26:13 And I will stop the music of your songs, and the sound of your lyres shall be heard no more.
    • Hos 2:11 And I will put an end to all her mirth, her feasts, her new moons, her Sabbaths, and all her appointed feasts.
    • Rev 18:22 and the sound of harpists and musicians, of flute players and trumpeters, will be heard in you no more, and a craftsman of any craft will be found in you no more, and the sound of the mill will be heard in you no more,

    9 They no longer sing and drink wine;
    beer is bitter to those who drink it.
    10 The city of chaos is shattered;
    every house is closed to entry.
    11 In the streets they cry for wine.
    All joy grows dark;
    earth’s rejoicing goes into exile.

    • 24:11 Wine production will decline, so the people will cry for wine but go unsatisfied. Wine is associated with joy and celebration; the judgment of God will bring such festivities to an end. Wine also blunts pain. This may be another reason the people will cry out for wine—because of the suffering that God’s judgment will produce. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1074). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

    12 Only desolation remains in the city;
    its gate has collapsed in ruins.

    • Oz note: gate represents safety

    13 For this is how it will be on earth
    among the nations:
    like a harvested olive tree,
    like a gleaning after a grape harvest.

    • 24:13 A harvested olive tree or a grape vine after harvest had only a few olives or grapes. So the cities of the nations will have just a few people left when God’s judgment falls.Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1075). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Isa 17:5, 6 And it shall be as when the reaper gathers standing grain and his arm harvests the ears, and as when one gleans the ears of grain in the Valley of Rephaim. 6 Gleanings will be left in it, as when an olive tree is beaten— two or three berries in the top of the highest bough, four or five on the branches of a fruit tree, declares the LORD God of Israel.

    14 They raise their voices, they sing out;
    they proclaim in the west
    the majesty of the LORD.
    15 Therefore, in the east honor the LORD!
    In the coasts and islands of the west
    honor the name of the LORD,
    the God of Israel.

    • Mal 1:11 For from the rising of the sun to its setting my name will be great among the nations, and in every place incense will be offered to my name, and a pure offering. For my name will be great among the nations, says the LORD of hosts.

    16 From the ends of the earth we hear songs:
    The Splendor of the Righteous One.
    But I said, “I waste away! I waste away!
    Woe is me.”
    The treacherous act treacherously;
    the treacherous deal very treacherously.

    • 24:14–16a Those who sing out are not specifically identified. They could be Israel or the remnant from all the nations. The fact that they are in the west, the east, the coasts and islands of the west, and the ends of the earth, suggests that if it does refer to Israel, then it imagines a time when they will be scattered among the nations. In any case, these verses indicate that there were some people who celebrated the downfall of the wicked described in the previous verses.
    • 24:16b Isaiah (the first-person speaker) does not join the chorus of celebration of vv. 14–16a. Perhaps he was horrified by the destruction or, more likely, by the depth of the transgression of the nations. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1075). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Jer 5:11 For the house of Israel and the house of Judah have been utterly treacherous to me, declares the LORD.

    17 Panic, pit, and trap await you
    who dwell on the earth.

    • Jer 48:43-44 Terror, pit, and snare are before you, O inhabitant of Moab! declares the LORD. 44 He who flees from the terror shall fall into the pit, and he who climbs out of the pit shall be caught in the snare. For I will bring these things upon Moab, the year of their punishment, declares the LORD.

    18 Whoever flees at the sound of panic
    will fall into a pit,
    and whoever escapes from the pit
    will be caught in a trap.
    For the floodgates on high are opened,
    and the foundations of the earth are shaken.

    • 24:17–18 The words panic, pit, and trap (pachad, wapachat, wapach) play on the similarity of sound of these three words in Hebrew. They stand for the judgment that God has prepared for the sinful inhabitants of the earth. The open windows of the sky imply rain and suggest devastating flood. The shaking foundations would be experienced as earthquakes. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1075). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Gen 7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst forth, and the windows of the heavens were opened.
    • Psa 18:7 Then the earth reeled and rocked; the foundations also of the mountains trembled and quaked, because he was angry.

    19 The earth is completely devastated;
    the earth is split open;
    the earth is violently shaken.

    • Jer 4:23 I looked on the earth, and behold, it was without form and void; and to the heavens, and they had no light.

    20 The earth staggers like a drunkard
    and sways like a hut.
    Earth’s rebellion weighs it down,
    and it falls, never to rise again.

    • 24:20 A drunkard cannot think or stand straight. A lightweight hut sways in the wind. Both ultimately will fall down. This judgment is connected to rebellion against God by virtually all people on earth. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1075). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Isa 19:14 The LORD has mingled within her a spirit of confusion, and they will make Egypt stagger in all its deeds, as a drunken man staggers in his vomit.

    21 On that day the LORD will punish
    the army of the heights in the heights
    and the kings of the ground on the ground.

    • 24:21 The phrase on that day points to a future but unspecified time. God’s judgment is extensive. It not only covers the earth but also the army of the heights, a phrase that either indicates the stars (perhaps also suggesting pagan deities) or fallen angels. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1075). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Psa 76:12 who cuts off the spirit of princes, who is to be feared by the kings of the earth.

    22 They will be gathered together
    like prisoners in a pit.
    They will be confined to a dungeon;
    after many days they will be punished.
    23 The moon will be put to shame
    and the sun disgraced,
    because the LORD of Armies will reign as king
    on Mount Zion in Jerusalem,
    and he will display his glory
    in the presence of his elders.

    • 24:23 Even the moon and sun will pale in comparison with the brilliant light emanating from God as he exercises his sovereign rule from the temple. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1075). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Isa 13:10 For the stars of the heavens and their constellations will not give their light; the sun will be dark at its rising, and the moon will not shed its light.
    • Isa 60:19 The sun shall be no more your light by day, nor for brightness shall the moon give you light; but the LORD will be your everlasting light, and your God will be your glory.
    • Eze 32:7 When I blot you out, I will cover the heavens and make their stars dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give its light.
    • Joe 2:31 The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the great and awesome day of the LORD comes.
    • Joe 3:15 The sun and the moon are darkened, and the stars withdraw their shining.
    • Rev 19:4, 6 And the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who was seated on the throne, saying, “Amen. Hallelujah!” 6 Then I heard what seemed to be the voice of a great multitude, like the roar of many waters and like the sound of mighty peals of thunder, crying out, “Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns.
    • Heb 12:22 But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering,

    Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 24:1–23). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

    Chapter 25

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    SALVATION AND JUDGMENT ON THAT DAY

    1 LORD, you are my God;
    I will exalt you. I will praise your name,
    for you have accomplished wonders,
    plans formed long ago, with perfect faithfulness.

    • Exo 15:2 The LORD is my strength and my song, and he has become my salvation; this is my God, and I will praise him, my father’s God, and I will exalt him.
    • Psa 98:1 A Psalm. Oh sing to the LORD a new song, for he has done marvelous things! His right hand and his holy arm have worked salvation for him.
    • Num 23:19 God is not man, that he should lie, or a son of man, that he should change his mind. Has he said, and will he not do it? Or has he spoken, and will he not fulfill it?

    2 For you have turned the city into a pile of rocks,
    a fortified city, into ruins;
    the fortress of barbarians is no longer a city;
    it will never be rebuilt.

    • Isa 21:9 And behold, here come riders, horsemen in pairs!” And he answered, “Fallen, fallen is Babylon; and all the carved images of her gods he has shattered to the ground.”
    • Isa 23:13 Behold the land of the Chaldeans! This is the people that was not; Assyria destined it for wild beasts. They erected their siege towers, they stripped her palaces bare, they made her a ruin.
    • Jer 51:37 and Babylon shall become a heap of ruins, the haunt of jackals, a horror and a hissing, without inhabitant.

    3 Therefore, a strong people will honor you.
    The cities of violent nations will fear you.

    • Rev 11:13 And at that hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.

    4 For you have been a stronghold for the poor person,
    a stronghold for the needy in his distress,
    a refuge from storms and a shade from heat.
    When the breath of the violent
    is like a storm against a wall,

    • Isa 4:6 There will be a booth for shade by day from the heat, and for a refuge and a shelter from the storm and rain.

    5 like heat in a dry land,
    you will subdue the uproar of barbarians.
    As the shade of a cloud cools the heat of the day,
    so he will silence the song of the violent.

    6 On this mountain,
    the LORD of Armies will prepare for all the peoples a feast of choice meat,
    a feast with aged wine, prime cuts of choice meat, fine vintage wine.

    • The mountain refers to the mountain of God’s presence—Zion
      Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1076). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Isa 2:2,3 It shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the house of the LORD shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and shall be lifted up above the hills; and all the nations shall flow to it, 3 and many peoples shall come, and say: “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob, that he may teach us his ways and that we may walk in his paths.” For out of Zion shall go the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
    • Pro 9:2 She has slaughtered her beasts; she has mixed her wine; she has also set her table.
    • Mat 22:4 Again he sent other servants, saying, ‘Tell those who are invited, “See, I have prepared my dinner, my oxen and my fat calves have been slaughtered, and everything is ready. Come to the wedding feast.”‘
    • Dan 7:14 And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed.
    • Mat 8:11 I tell you, many will come from east and west and recline at table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven,

    7 On this mountain
    he will swallow up the burial shroud,
    the shroud over all the peoples,
    the sheet covering all the nations.

    • 2Co 3:15 Yes, to this day whenever Moses is read a veil lies over their hearts.
    • Eph 4:18 They are darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, due to their hardness of heart.

    8 When he has swallowed up death once and for all,
    the Lord GOD will wipe away the tears
    from every face
    and remove his people’s disgrace
    from the whole earth,
    for the LORD has spoken.

    • 25:7–8 God not only conquers the evil nations, but death and sorrow (tears) and disgrace. The verb translated destroy is better rendered as “swallow.” Here there is likely an allusion to the Baal myth of Ugarit where death swallowed the god Baal. Here the Lord swallows death. Paul quotes v. 8 in 1Co 15:54.
      Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1076). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Hos 13:14 Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol? Shall I redeem them from Death? O Death, where are your plagues? O Sheol, where is your sting? Compassion is hidden from my eyes.
    • 1Co 15:54 When the perishable puts on the imperishable, and the mortal puts on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written: “Death is swallowed up in victory.”
    • Rev 7:17 For the Lamb in the midst of the throne will be their shepherd, and he will guide them to springs of living water, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.”
    • Rev 21:4 He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.”

    9 On that day it will be said,
    “Look, this is our God;
    we have waited for him, and he has saved us.
    This is the LORD; we have waited for him.
    Let’s rejoice and be glad in his salvation.”

    • Gen 49:18 I wait for your salvation, O LORD.
    • Tit 2:13 waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ,
    • Psa 20:5 May we shout for joy over your salvation, and in the name of our God set up our banners! May the LORD fulfill all your petitions!

    10 For the LORD’s power will rest on this mountain.

    But Moab will be trampled in his place
    as straw is trampled in a dung pile.

  • 25:10 The mountain is where God will make his presence known—Zion. Up to this point the nations have been referred to generically. Now Moab, a small nation east of the Dead Sea, becomes the subject of the pronouncement. Moab is a prime example of the sinful pride of the nations.
    Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1076). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
  • 11 He will spread out his arms in the middle of it,
    as a swimmer spreads out his arms to swim.
    His pride will be brought low,
    along with the trickery of his hands.
    12 The high-walled fortress will be brought down,
    thrown to the ground, to the dust.

    • Isa 26:5 For he has humbled the inhabitants of the height, the lofty city. He lays it low, lays it low to the ground, casts it to the dust.

    Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 25:1–12). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

    Chapter 26

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    THE SONG OF JUDAH

    1 On that day this song will be sung in the land of Judah:

    We have a strong city.
    Salvation is established as walls and ramparts.

    • Oz note: “rampart” is a fortress
    • Isa 2:11 The haughty looks of man shall be brought low, and the lofty pride of men shall be humbled, and the LORD alone will be exalted in that day.
    • Isa 60:18 Violence shall no more be heard in your land, devastation or destruction within your borders; you shall call your walls Salvation, and your gates Praise.

    2 Open the gates
    so a righteous nation can come in—
    one that remains faithful.

    • 26:2 The righteous nation includes faithful Israelites but might also suggest other peoples as well, since the defining characteristic of the nation is that it remains faithful to God and his law.
      Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1076). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Psa 118:19, 20 Open to me the gates of righteousness, that I may enter through them and give thanks to the LORD. 20 This is the gate of the LORD; the righteous shall enter through it.

    3 You will keep the mind that is dependent on you
    in perfect peace,
    for it is trusting in you.
    4 Trust in the LORD forever,
    because in the LORD, the LORD himself, is an everlasting rock!

    • Isa 45:17 But Israel is saved by the LORD with everlasting salvation; you shall not be put to shame or confounded to all eternity.

    5 For he has humbled those who live in lofty places—
    an inaccessible city.
    He brings it down; he brings it down to the ground;
    he throws it to the dust.

    • 26:5 The inaccessible city, like the “city of chaos” (see note at 24:10), represents the proud who do not humble themselves before God. Though it is called “inaccessible,” God is able to defeat this city in spite of its pretensions. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Isa 25:12 And the high fortifications of his walls he will bring down, lay low, and cast to the ground, to the dust.
    • Isa 32:19 And it will hail when the forest falls down, and the city will be utterly laid low.

    6 Feet trample it,
    the feet of the humble,
    the steps of the poor.

    GOD’S PEOPLE VINDICATED

    7 The path of the righteous is level;
    you clear a straight path for the righteous.

    • 26:7 A level or straight path is a life with few problems (Heb 12:13). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Psa 37:23 The steps of a man are established by the LORD, when he delights in his way;

    8 Yes, LORD, we wait for you
    in the path of your judgments.
    Our desire is for your name and renown.

    • 26:8 In this verse Isaiah spoke on behalf of himself and the righteous as he expressed longing for God and specifically for God’s coming judgment on the wicked. But even in the context of passionate desire for God, they did not demand his actions but expressed confidence (we wait). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Isa 64:5 You meet him who joyfully works righteousness, those who remember you in your ways. Behold, you were angry, and we sinned; in our sins we have been a long time, and shall we be saved?

    9 I long for you in the night;
    yes, my spirit within me diligently seeks you,
    for when your judgments are in the land,
    the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness.

    • Psa 63:6 when I remember you upon my bed, and meditate on you in the watches of the night;
    • Song of Sol 3:1 On my bed by night I sought him whom my soul loves; I sought him, but found him not.

    10 But if the wicked man is shown favor,
    he does not learn righteousness.
    In a righteous land he acts unjustly
    and does not see the majesty of the LORD.

    • 26:9–10 People learn about righteousness when wickedness is punished. Otherwise, evil behavior is encouraged (Ec 8:11). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Ecc 8:12 Though a sinner does evil a hundred times and prolongs his life, yet I know that it will be well with those who fear God, because they fear before him.
    • Rom 2:4 Or do you presume on the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience, not knowing that God’s kindness is meant to lead you to repentance?
    • Psa 143:10 Teach me to do your will, for you are my God! Let your good Spirit lead me on level ground!

    11 LORD, your hand is lifted up to take action,
    but they do not see it.
    Let them see your zeal for your people
    and be put to shame.

    • Job 34:27 because they turned aside from following him and had no regard for any of his ways,
    • Psa 28:5 Because they do not regard the works of the LORD or the work of his hands, he will tear them down and build them up no more.
    • Isa 5:12 They have lyre and harp, tambourine and flute and wine at their feasts, but they do not regard the deeds of the LORD, or see the work of his hands.

    Let fire consume your adversaries.
    12 LORD, you will establish peace for us,
    for you have also done all our work for us.

    • 26:12 Contrary to the fate of the wicked, God’s righteous people will experience peace, not destruction. While it is difficult to pinpoint the exact nature of the prophet’s reference to God’s work, it certainly includes the punishment of the wicked. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

    13 LORD our God, lords other than you have owned us,
    but we remember your name alone.

    • 26:13 The faithful acknowledge that other lords have owned them. These would include the Assyrians and eventually the Babylonians and others. But for the faithful there is only one true ruler—God himself. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • 2Ch 12:8 Nevertheless, they shall be servants to him, that they may know my service and the service of the kingdoms of the countries.”

    14 The dead do not live;
    departed spirits do not rise up.
    Indeed, you have punished and destroyed them;
    you have wiped out all memory of them.
    15 You have added to the nation, LORD.
    You have added to the nation; you are honored.
    You have expanded all the borders of the land.

    • 26:15 In contrast to the wicked whom he punishes, God blesses the righteous. In this verse his blessing takes the form of an expanded land, evoking the memory that God promised Abraham his descendants would become a “great nation” (Gn 12:2). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.

    16 LORD, they went to you in their distress;
    they poured out whispered prayers
    because your discipline fell on them.

    • Hos 5:15 Nevertheless, they shall be servants to him, that they may know my service and the service of the kingdoms of the countries.”

    17 As a pregnant woman about to give birth
    writhes and cries out in her pains,
    so we were before you, LORD.

    • Isa 13:8 They will be dismayed: pangs and agony will seize them; they will be in anguish like a woman in labor. They will look aghast at one another; their faces will be aflame.
    • Joh 16:21 When a woman is giving birth, she has sorrow because her hour has come, but when she has delivered the baby, she no longer remembers the anguish, for joy that a human being has been born into the world.

    18 We became pregnant, we writhed in pain;
    we gave birth to wind.
    We have won no victories on earth,
    and the earth’s inhabitants have not fallen.

    • 26:16–18 Turning from the future back to the present, God’s people experienced suffering similar to the excruciating pain of a woman in labor. A pregnant woman goes through that pain and receives a positive result at the end—a baby. However, God’s people went through the pain and simply passed gas (gave birth to wind). There was no deliverance, no victory over enemies. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Psa 17:14 from men by your hand, O LORD, from men of the world whose portion is in this life. You fill their womb with treasure; they are satisfied with children, and they leave their abundance to their infants.

    19 Your dead will live; their bodies will rise.
    Awake and sing, you who dwell in the dust!
    For you will be covered with the morning dew,
    and the earth will bring out the departed spirits.

    • 26:19 In contrast to the wicked who die and stay dead (v. 14), God’s people will live again. The morning dew is an image of freshness and renewal. Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Eze 37:1 The hand of the LORD was upon me, and he brought me out in the Spirit of the LORD and set me down in the middle of the valley; it was full of bones.
    • Dan 12:2 And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.

    20 Go, my people, enter your rooms
    and close your doors behind you.
    Hide for a little while until the wrath has passed.

    • Exo 12:22, 23 Take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and touch the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. None of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning. 23 For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians, and when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses to strike you.
    • Psa 30:5 For his anger is but for a moment, and his favor is for a lifetime. Weeping may tarry for the night, but joy comes with the morning.
    • Isa 54:7, 8 For a brief moment I deserted you, but with great compassion I will gather you. 8 In overflowing anger for a moment I hid my face from you, but with everlasting love I will have compassion on you,” says the LORD, your Redeemer.
    • 2Co 4:17 For this light momentary affliction is preparing for us an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison,

    21 For look, the LORD is coming from his place
    to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity.
    The earth will reveal the blood shed on it
    and will no longer conceal her slain.

    • 26:20–21 The call to hide during the judgment is reminiscent of the first Passover when God’s people stayed in their homes while God took the lives of the Egyptian firstborn (Ex 12). Longman, T., III. (2017). Isaiah. In E. A. Blum & T. Wax (Eds.), CSB Study Bible: Notes (p. 1077). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
    • Mic 1:3 For behold, the LORD is coming out of his place, and will come down and tread upon the high places of the earth.

    Christian Standard Bible. (2017). (Is 26:1–21). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.


    VERNON MCGEE NOTES

    ISAIAH Dr. J. Vernon McGee


    PROPHETIC BOOKS

    Beginning with Isaiah, and continuing through the Old Testament, there is a section of Scripture called the prophetic portion of the Bible. Although the predictive element bulks large in this section, the prophets were more than fortune-tellers. Actually, they were men raised up of God in a decadent day when both priest and king were no longer worthy channels through whom the expressions of God might flow.

    These men not only spoke of events in the far-off future but also spoke of local events in the immediate future. They had to speak in this manner in order to qualify for this office under God, according to the Mosaic code:

    But the prophet, who shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or who shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die. And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the LORD hath not spoken? When a prophet speaketh in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously; thou shalt not be afraid of him. (Deuteronomy 18:20-22)

    If the local event did not transpire just as the prophet predicted, he was labeled a false prophet and was so treated. You may be sure that the message of the false prophet is not in the library of inspired Scripture. The prophetic books are filled with events that are local and fulfilled. A sharp distinction needs to be drawn between this portion and that which is yet to be fulfilled.

    One of the greatest evidences of the fact that these men were speaking the words of God is revealed in the hundreds of prophecies that have been fulfilled literally. Man cannot guess the future. Even the meteorologists have difficulty in prognosticating the weather twenty- four hours in advance, although they have the advantage of all sorts of scientific and mechanical devices to assist them. No modern weather forecaster could have been an accepted prophet in Israel! The law of compound probability forbids man from consistently foretelling the future. Each uncertain element added decreases the chance of accuracy by fifty percent. The example of hundreds of prophecies literally fulfilled has a genuine appeal to the honest mind and sincere seeker after the truth. Fulfilled prophecy is one of the infallible proofs of plenary, verbal inspiration of Scripture.

    The predictive element is the peculiar and particular contribution of these men of God. This does not mean there was not this element before them or after them. The last book of the Bible closes the message of God for the future.

    The prophets were extremely nationalistic. They rebuked sin in high as well as low places. They warned the nation. They pleaded with a proud people to humble themselves and return to God. Fire and tears were mingled in their message, which was not one of doom and gloom alone, for they saw the Day of the Lord and the glory to follow. All of them looked through the darkness to the dawn of a new day. In the night of sin they saw the light of a coming Savior and Sovereign; they saw the millennial kingdom coming in all its fullness. Their message must be interpreted before an appreciation of the kingdom in the New Testament can be attained. The correct perspective of the kingdom must be gained through the eye of the Old Testament prophets.

    The prophets were not supermen — they were men of like passions as we are, but having spoken for God, their message is still the infallible and inspired Word of God:

    Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you, searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ who was in them did signify, when he testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. (1 Peter 1:10, 11)
    We have also a more sure word of prophecy, unto which ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts; knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not at any time by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. (2 Peter 1:19-21)

    Sweet is the harp of prophecy; too sweet not to be wronged by a mere mortal touch.
    — William Cowper

    ISAIAH WRITER: Isaiah (1:1)

    Most of the prophets moved in an orbit of obscurity and anonymity.
    They did not project their personalities into the prophecies they proclaimed. Jeremiah and Hosea are the exceptions to this, of course. Isaiah gives us very little of an historical character concerning himself. There are a few scant references to his life and ministry. In Isaiah 1:1 he gives “the days” in which his lot was cast. It was during the reigns of “Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.” These were not the darkest days in Judah internally. Uzziah and Hezekiah were enlightened rulers who sought to serve God. But the days were extremely dark because of the menace of the formidable kingdom of Assyria in the north. The northern kingdom of Israel was carried away into captivity during this period.

    Isaiah 6 records the personal call and commission of Isaiah. This chapter should come first in the prophecy — logically if not chronologically. Isaiah 36 — 39 is the historical section, which records the ministry of Isaiah during the crisis when the Assyrian host encompassed Jerusalem. Beyond these few personal sections, Isaiah stands in the shadow as he points to another Person who is coming.

    It is stated by some that Isaiah belonged to the royal family of David. This cannot be positively affirmed. Likewise, it has been stated that he is referred to in Hebrews 11:37 as the one “sawn asunder.” This may or may not be true. The liberal critic has sawn him asunder in forging the fake fabric of the Deutero-Isaiah hypothesis. Some have gone so far as to fabricate a Trito-Isaiah. There is not a scrap of documentary evidence beyond the skepticism of the destructive critic. They have cut Isaiah up like a railroad restaurant pie. History presents only one Isaiah, not two or three. This method of the destructive critic could be applied one thousand years hence to prove just as easily that there were three Dwight Eisenhowers:

    • 1st — General Eisenhower, the military leader of the victorious forces of World War II — European theatre.
    • 2nd — President Eisenhower of the United States, elected in 1952 and 1956.
    • 3rd — Dwight D. Eisenhower, the invalid man and victim of a heart attack and a serious operation for ileitis.

    We know that only one man by the name of Eisenhower fulfilled all those requirements. Likewise, only one man by the name of Isaiah can easily fulfill all the requirements as the sole author of the Book of Isaiah.

    THEME: As the New Testament presents the Lord Jesus Christ as its theme, so Isaiah presents the Lord Jesus Christ as his theme. Isaiah has been called the 5th evangelist; the Book of Isaiah has been called the 5th Gospel. Christ’s virgin birth, His character, His life, His death, His resurrection, and His second coming are all presented in Isaiah with definiteness and clarity. (See 1 Peter 1:10, 11; cp. Luke 4:16-22 with Isaiah 61:1-4.)

    STYLE AND CONTENT: The prophecy of Isaiah is strikingly similar to the entire Bible, which can be seen in the following comparison:


    BIBLE

    BOOK OF ISAIAH

    66 Books
    66 Chapters

    39 Books in Old Testament
    39 Chapters on Law, the Government of God

    27 Books in the Old Testament
    27 Chapters on Grace, salvation of God

    Also, there are some 66 direct quotations from Isaiah in the New Testament. Some people have found 85 quotations and allusions to Isaiah in the New Testament.

    20 of the 27 books of the New Testament refer to Isaiah; 12 books of the New Testament have direct quotations.

    ISAIAH is woven into the New Testament as a brightly colored thread woven into a beautiful pattern.

    ISAIAH is discernible and conspicuous in the New Testament. ISAIAH is chiseled into the rock of the New Testament with the power
    tool of the Holy Spirit.

    ISAIAH is often used to enforce and enlarge upon those passages that
    speak of Christ.

    The historic interlude (chapters 36—39) leaves the high plateau of prophecy and drops down to the record of history. Even the form of language is different. It is couched in the form of prose rather than poetry. Why are these four chapters of an historical character wedged in between the two major divisions of the book? This is a reasonable question that requires investigation and rewards the honest inquirer. There are several significant factors worthy of mention:

    1. Sacred and secular history are not the same. Dr. Jennings states, “Divine history is never merely history, never simply a true account of past events.” There are great spiritual truths couched in sacred history that are seen only by the eye of faith. The Holy Spirit must teach us the divine purpose in recording scriptural history. Let us note several suggestive reasons:

    • a. These incidents might seem trite to the average historian who records great world movements; but events concerning God’s people were important according to the standards of heaven.
    • b. Actually these chapters note the transfer of power from Assyria to Babylon. Babylon was the real menace to God’s people and was to begin the period designated by our Lord as “the times of the Gentiles” (Luke 21:24).
    • c. This section is a record of a son of David who was beset by enemies and who went down to the verge of death but was delivered and continued to reign. In this he foreshadows the great Son of David who was beset by enemies, delivered to death, raised from the dead, and who is coming again to reign. Hezekiah was only a man who walked in the ways of David, another weak man. Hezekiah lived to play the fool. Our Lord was greater than David and, as the crucified and risen Son of God, is made unto us “wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption” (1 Corinthians 1:30). There are other great spiritual truths which we will note in the chapter outlines.

    2. The second significant factor in this historic section is that these particular events are recorded three times in the Scriptures — 2 Kings 18, 19; 2 Chronicles 29, 30; and here in Isaiah. The fact that the Holy Spirit saw fit to record them three times is in itself a matter of great importance. These records are not identical but similar. Some scholars think Isaiah is the author of all three or at least the one in Kings. Surely the Spirit of God has some special truth for us here that should cause us not to hurry over these events as if they were of no great moment.

    3. Three significant and stupendous miracles are recorded in this brief section:

    • a. The death angel slays 185,000 Assyrians (37:36-38).
    • b. God heals Hezekiah and extends his life fifteen years (38:1-5).
    • c. The sun retreats ten degrees on the sun dial of Ahaz (38:7, 8).

    4. This section opens with Assyria and closes with Babylon. There are two important letters that Hezekiah received:

    • a. The first was from Assyria, which Hezekiah took directly to God in prayer (37:14); and God delivered His people.
    • b. The second letter was from the king of Babylon which flattered Hezekiah and which he did not take to the Lord in prayer. As a result, it led to the undoing of Judah (39:1-8).

    The third and last major division (chapters 40 — 66) returns to the poetic form but is in contrast to the first major section. There we had judgment and the righteous government of God; here we have the grace of God, the suffering, and glory to follow. Here all is grace and glory. The opening “comfort ye” sets the mood and tempo.

    It is this section that has caused the liberal critics to postulate the Deutero-Isaiah hypothesis. A change of subject matter does not necessitate a change of authorship. It is interesting that for 1900 years there was not a word about a second Isaiah. John refers to this section as authored by Isaiah (John 1:23). Our Lord likewise referred to this section as written by Isaiah (Luke 4:17-21). There are numerous other references that similarly confirm the authorship of Isaiah.

    Philip used a chapter from this section to win an Ethiopian to Christ (Acts 8).

    The prophecy of Isaiah presents another important aspect of prophecy. This has to do with the plenary, verbal inspiration of Scripture.

    All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works. (2 Timothy 3:16, 17)

    One of the most solid proofs of the plenary, verbal inspiration of Scripture is fulfilled prophecy. Isaiah contains many prophecies that have been fulfilled since he wrote them.

    There were many false prophets in Israel, as the Scriptures reveal. Read the entire record in 2 Chronicles 18. Note especially 18:22 — “Now, therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of these, thy prophets, and the LORD hath spoken evil against thee.”

    The prophet had to speak into a local situation and in respect to contemporary events of his day. If his prophecy failed to materialize, then he was declared a false prophet (Deuteronomy 18:20-22). If the matter came to pass, he was declared a true prophet. Isaiah prophesied into many local events. When Jerusalem was surrounded by the Assyrian army, Isaiah made a very daring prophecy

    Therefore, thus saith the LORD concerning the king of Assyria, He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shields, nor cast a bank against it. (Isaiah 37:33)

    Also see his prophecy concerning the sickness of Hezekiah in Isaiah 38.

    There are other prophecies that were not fulfilled in his lifetime, but today they stand fulfilled. See, for instance, his prophecies concerning the city of Babylon:

    And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldeans’ excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation; neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there. But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures, and ostriches shall dwell there, and he-goats shall dance there. And the wild beasts of the coastlands shall cry in their desolate houses, and jackals in their pleasant palaces; and her time is near to come, and her days shall not be prolonged. (Isaiah 13:19-22)

    Further fulfillments relative to Babylon are recorded in Isaiah 47. Excavations at Babylon have revealed the accuracy of these prophecies. More than fifty miles of the walls of Babylon have been excavated. The culture of this great civilization is still impressive but lies in dust and debris today according to the written word of Isaiah. This is one of many examples that could be given. Others will come before us in this study as we proceed through the book.

      OUTLINE:

    • I. Judgment (poetry), Chapters 1 — 35 Revelation of the Sovereign on the throne. (The Crown, chapter 6. The government of God.)
      1. A. Solemn call to the universe to come into the courtroom
      2. to hear God’s charge against the nation Israel, Chapter 1
      3. B. Preview of the future for Judah and Jerusalem, Chapter 2
      4. C. Present view of Judah and Jerusalem, Chapter 3
      5. D. Another preview of the future, Chapter 4
      6. E. Parable of the vineyard and woes predicted on Israel, Chapter 5
      7. F. Isaiah’s personal call and commission as prophet, Chapter 6
      8. G. Prediction of local and far events, Chapters 7 — 10
      9. (Hope of future in coming Child)
      10. H. Millennial kingdom, Chapters 11, 12
      11. I. Burdens of surrounding nations (largely fulfilled),
    • Chapters 13 — 23
      • 1. Burden of Babylon, Chapters 13, 14
      • 2. Burden of Moab, Chapters 15, 16
      • 3. Burden of Damascas, Chapter 17
      • 4. Burden of the land beyond the rivers of Ethiopia, Chapter 18 5. Burden of Egypt, Chapters 19, 20
      • 6. Burden of Babylon, Edom, Arabia, Chapter 21
      • 7. Burden of the Valley of Vision, Chapter 22
      • 8. Burden of Tyre, Chapter 23
    • J. Kingdom, process and program by which the throne is established on earth, Chapters 24 — 34
    • K. Kingdom, mundane blessings of the Millennium, Chapter 35
      II. Historic interlude (prose), Chapters 36 — 39
      (This section is probably a prophetic picture of how God will deliver His people in the Great Tribulation [see 2 Kings 18, 19 and 2 Chronicles 29, 30].)

    • A. King Hezekiah and the invasion of Sennacherib, king of
    • Assyria, Chapter 36
    • B. King Hezekiah’s prayer and the destruction of the Assyrian
    • hosts, Chapter 37
    • C. King Hezekiah’s sickness, prayer and healing, Chapter 38
    • D. King Hezekiah plays the fool, Chapter 39
      III. Salvation (poetry), Chapters 40 — 66 Revelation of the Savior in the place of suffering. (The Cross, chapter 53. The grace of God. There is a three-fold division marked by the concluding thought in each division, “There is no peace to the wicked.”)

    • A. Comfort of Jehovah which comes through the Servant,
    • Chapters 40 — 48
    • (Polemic against idolatry — help and hope come only through the Servant.)
    • B. Salvation of Jehovah which comes through the suffering Servant, Chapters 49 — 57
      • 1. Redeemer of the whole world, who is God’s Servant,
      • Chapters 49:1— 52:12
      • 2. Redemption wrought by the suffering Servant, who is
      • God’s Sheep (Lamb), Chapters 52:13 — 53:12
      • 3. Results of the redemption wrought by the Redeemer, who
      • is God’s only Savior, Chapters 54 — 57
    • C. Glory of Jehovah which comes through the suffering Servant, Chapters 58 — 66
    • 1. Sin hinders the manifestation of the glory of God,
      Chapters 58, 59
    • 2. Redeemer is coming to Zion, Chapters 60 — 66
      (Nothing can hinder God’s progress — He will judge sin.)

    May 11, 2020

    Matthew and OT references 5.11.20

    Filed under: Old & New Testament — Adam Osborne @ 8:46 pm

    Matthew 1:23 / Isaiah 7:14

    • Matthew 1:23 “Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel” (which means, God with us).
    • Isaiah 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.

    Matthew 2:6 / Micah 5:2

    • Matthew 2:6 “‘And you, O Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for from you shall come a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel.'”
    • Micah 5:2 But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, who are too little to be among the clans of Judah, from you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel, whose coming forth is from of old, from ancient days.

    Matthew 2:15 / Hosea 11:1

    • Matthew 2:15 and remained there until the death of Herod. This was to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophet, “Out of Egypt I called my son.”
    • Hosea 11:1 When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son.

    Matthew 2:18 / Jeremiah 31:15

    • Matthew 2:18“A voice was heard in Ramah, weeping and loud lamentation, Rachel weeping for her children; she refused to be comforted, because they are no more.”
    • Jeremiah 31:15 Thus says the LORD: “A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping. Rachel is weeping for her children; she refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more.”

    Matthew 3:3 / Isaiah 40:3

    • Matthew 3:3For this is he who was spoken of by the prophet Isaiah when he said, “The voice of one crying in the wilderness: ‘Prepare the way of the Lord; make his paths straight.'”
    • Isaiah 40:3A voice cries: “In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD; make straight in the desert a highway for our God.

    Matthew 4:4 / Deuteronomy 8:3

    • Matthew 4:4But he answered, “It is written, “‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.'”
    • Deuteronomy 8:3And he humbled you and let you hunger and fed you with manna, which you did not know, nor did your fathers know, that he might make you know that man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by every word that comes from the mouth of the LORD.

    Matthew 4:6 / Psalms 91:11-12

    • Matthew 4:6 and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down. For it is written: He will give his angelsr orders concerning you, and they will support you with their hands so that you will not strike your foot against a stone
    • Psalms 91:11-12 For he will give his angels orders concerning you, to protect you in all your ways. 12 They will support you with their hands so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.

    Matthew 4:7 / Deuteronomy 6:16

    • Matthew 4:7 Jesus told him, “It is also written: Do not test the Lord your God.”
    • Deuteronomy 6:16 Do not test the Lord your God as you tested him at Massah.

    Matthew 4:10 / Deuteronomy 6:13 and 10:20

    • Matthew 4:10 Then Jesus told him, “Go away,I Satan! For it is written: Worship the Lord your God, and serve only him.”
    • Deuteronomy 6:13 Fear the Lord your God, worship him, and take your oaths in his name.
    • Deuteronomy 10:20 You are to fear the Lord your God and worship him. Remain faithful to him and take oaths in his name.

    Matthew 4:15-16 / Isaiah 9:1-2

    • Matthew 4:15-16 Land of Zebulun and land of Naphtali, along the road by the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles. 16 The people who live in darkness
      have seen a great light, and for those living in the land of the shadow of death, a light has dawned.
    • Isaiah 9:1-2 Nevertheless, the gloom of the distressed land will not be like that of the former times when he humbled the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali.ab But in the future he will bring honor to the way of the sea, to the land east of the Jordan, and to Galilee of the nations. 2 The people walking in darkness have seen a great light; a light has dawned
      on those living in the land of darkness.

    Matthew 5:5 / Psalms 37:11

    • Matthew 5:5 Blessed are the humble, for they will inherit the earth.
    • Psalms 37:11 But the humble will inherit the land and will enjoy abundant prosperity.

    Matthew 5:21 / Exodus 20:13 and Deuteronomy 5:17

    • Matthew 5:21 “You have heard that it was said to our ancestors, Do not murder,F,z and whoever murders will be subject to judgment.
    • Exodus 20:13 Do not murder
    • Deuteronomy 5:17 Do not murder

    Matthew 5:27/ Exodus 20:14

    • Matthew 5:27 “You have heard that it was said, Do not commit adultery.
    • Exodus 20:14 Do not commit adultery.

    Matthew 5:31 / Deuteronomy 24:1

    • Matthew 5:31“It was also said, Whoever divorcese his wife must give her a written notice of divorce
    • Deuteronomy 24:1If a man marries a woman, but she becomes displeasing to him because he finds something indecent about her, he may write her a divorce certificate, hand it to her, and send her away from his house.

    Matthew 5:33 / Exodus 20:7 / Leviticus 19:12

    • Matthew 5:33Again, you have heard that it was said to our ancestors, You must not break your oath, but you must keep your oaths to the Lord.
    • Exodus 20:7Do not misuse the name of the Lord your God, because the Lord will not leave anyone unpunished who misuses his name
    • Leviticus 19:12Do not swear falsely by my name, profaning the name of your God;ab I am the Lord

    Matthew 5:38 / Exodus 21:24 and Leviticus 24:20

    • Matthew 5:38You have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth
    • Exodus 21:24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot
    • Leviticus 24:20fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth. Whatever injury he inflicted on the person, the same is to be inflicted on him.

    Matthew 5:43 / Leviticus 19:18

    • Matthew 5:43“You have heard that it was said, Love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.
    • Leviticus 19:18Do not take revengeao or bear a grudge against members of your community, but love your neighbor as yourself;

    Matthew 5:48/ Genesis 17:1

    • Matthew 5:48 Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect
    • Genesis 17:1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to him, saying, “I am God Almighty. Live in my presence and be blameless

    Matthew 5:21 / Exodus 20:13

    • Matthew 5:21 “You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not murder; and whoever murders will be liable to judgment.’
    • Exodus 20:13
    • De 5:17

    Matthew 5:27 Ex 20:14 De 5:18

    • Matthew 5:27 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’

    Matthew 5:31 / Deuteronomy 24:1

    • Matthew 5:31 “It was also said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.’
    • Deuteronomy 24:1

    Matthew 5:33 / Exodus 20:7

    • Matthew 5:33 “Again you have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform to the Lord what you have sworn.’
    • Exodus 20:7
    • Leviticus 19:12

    Matthew 5:38 / Exodus 21:24 / Leviticus 24:20 / Deuteronomy 19:21

    • Matthew 5:38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’
    • Exodus 21:24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot
    • Leviticus 24:20 fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; whatever injury he has given a person shall be given to him
    • Deuteronomy 19:21 Your eye shall not pity. It shall be life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot

    Matthew 5:43 Lev 19:18

    • Matthew 5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’
    • Leviticus 19:18 You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against the sons of your own people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD.

    Matthew 5:48 / Genesis 17:1

    • Matthew 5:48 You therefore must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.
    • Genesis 17:1When Abram was ninety-nine years old the LORD appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless,

    Matthew 7:23 Psalm 6:8

    • Matthew 7:23 And then will I declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from me, you workers of lawlessness.’
    • Psalm 6:8 Depart from me, all you workers of evil, for the LORD has heard the sound of my weeping.

    Mat 8:4 Lev 14:2,3

    • Mat 8:4And Jesus said to him, “See that you say nothing to anyone, but go, show yourself to the priest and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a proof to them.”
    • Lev 14:2,3“This shall be the law of the leprous person for the day of his cleansing. He shall be brought to the priest, 3 and the priest shall go out of the camp, and the priest shall look. Then, if the case of leprous disease is healed in the leprous person,

    Mat 8:17 Isa 53:4

    • Mat 8:17This was to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah: “He took our illnesses and bore our diseases.”
    • Isa 53:4 Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we esteemed him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted.

    Mat 9:13 Hos 6:6

    • Mat 9:13Go and learn what this means, ‘I desire mercy, and not sacrifice.’ For I came not to call the righteous, but sinners.”
    • Hos 6:6For I desire steadfast love and not sacrifice, the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings.

    Mt 10:35,26 Mic 7:6

    Mt 11:5 Isa 35:5

    Mt 11:5 Isa 29:18

    Mt 11:10 Mal 3:1

    Mt 11:14 Mal 4:5

    Mt 12:3 1Sa 21:6

    Mt 12:5 Nu 28:9,10

    Mt 12:7 Ho 6:6

    Mt 12:18 Isa 42:1

    Mt 12:18-21 Isa 42:1-4

    Mt 12:40 Jon 1:17

    Mt 12:42 1Ki 10:1

    Mt 13:14 Isa 6:9,10

    Mt 13:35 Ps 78:2

    Mt 15:4 Ex 20:12

    Mt 15:4 De 5:16

    Mt 15:4 Ex 21:17

    Mt 15:4 Le 20:9

    Mt 15:4 Pr 20:20

    Mt 15:8,9 Isa 29:13

    Mt 16:4 Jon 1:17

    Mt 17:10 Mal 4:5

    Mt 18:15 Le 19:17

    Mt 18:16 Le 19:15

    Mt 18:16 De 19:15

    Mt 19:4 Ge 1:27

    Mt 19:5 Ge 2:24

    Mt 19:7 De 24:1

    Mt 19:18 Ex 20:12

    Mt 19:19 Le 19:18

    Mt 19:26 Jer 32:17

    Mt 21:5 Zec 9:9

    Mt 21:9 Ps 118:26

    Mt 21:13 Isa 56:7

    Mt 21:13 Jer 7:11

    Mt 21:16 Ps 8:2

    Mt 21:33 Isa 5:1

    Mt 21:42 Ps 118:22,23

    Mt 21:44 Isa 8:14

    Mt 21:44 Zec 12:3

    Mt 21:44 Da 2:34,35,44

    Mt 22:24 De 25:5

    Mt 22:32 Ex 3:6

    Mt 22:37 De 6:5

    Mt 22:39 Le 19:18

    Mt 22:44 Ps 110:1

    Mt 23:35 Ge 4:8

    Mt 23:35 2Ch 24:21,22

    Mt 23:38 Ps 69:25

    Mt 23:38 Jer 12:7

    Mt 23:38 Jer 22:5

    Mt 23:39 Ps 118:26

    Mt 24:15 Da 9:27

    Mt 24:15 Da 8:13

    Mt 24:15 Da 11:31

    Mt 24:15 Da 12:11

    Mt 24:21 Jer 30:7

    Mt 24:29 Isa 13:9,10 Joe 2:10

    Mt 24:29 Joe 3:15

    Mt 24:29 Eze 32:7

    Mt 24:35 Isa 51:16

    Mt 24:37 Ge 7:4

    Mt 25:41 Ps 6:8

    Mt 26:24 Ps 22:1-31

    Mt 26:31 Zec 13:7

    Mt 26:60 Ps 35:11

    Mt 26:67 Isa 50:6

    Mt 27:9,10 Zec 11:13

    Mt 27:35 Ps 22:18

    Mt 27:43 Ps 22:7,8,9

    Mt 27:46 Ps 22:1

    Mt 28:18 Da 7:14

    January 1, 2020

    Holy Spirit – 01.01.20

    Filed under: Old & New Testament — Adam Osborne @ 4:07 pm

    Omnipresent. Psalm 139:7-8 Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? 8 If I ascend to heaven, you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there!
    Searcher of your spirit. 1 Corinthians 2:10–11 these things God has revealed to us through the Spirit. For the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God. 11 For who knows a person’s thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God.
    The Holy Spirit can be grieved. Ephesians 4:30 (ESV) And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.
    Intercedes for us: Romans 8:26-27 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words. 27 And he who searches hearts knows what is the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God.
    The Holy Spirit makes decisions according to His will: 1 Corinthians 12:7-11 To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good. 8 For to one is given through the Spirit the utterance of wisdom, and to another the utterance of knowledge according to the same Spirit, 9 to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, 10 to another the working of miracles, to another prophecy, to another the ability to distinguish between spirits, to another various kinds of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues. 11 All these are empowered by one and the same Spirit, who apportions to each one individually as he wills.
    Helper:

    • John 14:16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper, to be with you forever,
    • John 14:26 But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.

    Convicts “unbelievers” of their sin = John 16:8-11 When He (the Holy Spirit) comes, He will convict the world of guilt in regard to sin and righteousness and judgment: in regard to sin, because men do not believe in me; in regard to righteousness, because I am going to the Father, where you can see me no longer; and in regard to judgment, because the prince of this world now stands condemned.”
    Guarantees our Salvation: Ephesians 1:13 In him you also, when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit,
    He assists us in Prayer: Jude 1:20 But you, beloved, building yourselves up in your most holy faith and praying in the Holy Spirit
    Regenerates and Renews Believers: Titus 3:5 he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit
    Baptizes believers into the body of Christ: Romans 6:3 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
    Gives new birth threw His power: John 3:5-8 Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. 6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7. Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’8. The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear its sound, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit.”
    Comforts believers with Fellowship and Joy:

    • 1 Thessalonians 1:6 And you became imitators of us and of the Lord, for you received the word in much affliction, with the joy of the Holy Spirit,
    • 2 Corinthians 13:14 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.

    Fills us with Joy and Peace: Romans 15:13 May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.
    Sanctification: Galatians 5:19-26
    Gift Giver; Spiritual Gifts = 1 Corinthians 12:4 Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit;
    Testifies of Christ, pointing people to the Lord = John 15:26 “But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness about me.
    The Spirit helps us to understand God and His word = 1 Corinthians 2: 12-13 Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God. And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who are spiritual.

    November 11, 2019

    Assurance of Salvation – 11.11.19

    Filed under: Old & New Testament — Adam Osborne @ 7:34 am

    Romans 8:38-39 “For I am sure that neither death nor life, nor angels nor rulers, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.”

    John 3:16 For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.

    John 5:24 “Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life.”

    John 6:37-39 All that the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never cast out. 38. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will but the will of him who sent me. 39. And this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up on the last day.

    John 6:47 “Truly, truly, I say to you, he who believes has eternal life.

    John 10:28-29 I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. 29 My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand.

    John 11:25-26 “Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, and everyone who lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe this?”

    Acts 16:31 31 And they said, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household.”

    Romans 5:8 but God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.

    Romans 10:9 because, if myou confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and nbelieve in your heart othat God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.

    2 Corinthians 5:21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

    1 John 5:11-13 And this is the testimony, that God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. 12, Whoever has the Son has life; whoever does not have the Son of God does not have life 13. I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God that you may know that you have eternal life.

    Philippians 1:6 “And I am sure of this, that he who began a good work in you will bring it to completion at the day of Jesus Christ.”

    Hebrews 7:25 Therefore He is able also to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.

    January 1, 2019

    Daniel – start date 1/1/2019

    Filed under: Old & New Testament — Adam Osborne @ 2:26 pm

    Daniel

    Daniel was taken prisoner and taken to Babylon during the first deportation in 606 BC. See Habakkuk, Chapters 1 to 3.

    • He and other members of the Judean royal and noble families were given special training to serve in the Babylonian court.
    • He quickly gained a reputation as an “interpreter of dreams and riddles”, which led to his appointment to high government posts in Babylon.
    • He lived in Babylon for seventy years until the Babylonians were defeated by Persia in 539 BC.
    • He was not like the other prophets because he did NOT say “Thus says the Lord”. Instead, he was primarily an interpreter of dreams and riddles and received visions himself.
    • The story of Daniel in the lions den, and, Daniels three friends in the fiery furnace comes from the book of Daniel.

    Chapters: | 1 | 2 | 3| 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |9 | |10 | |11 ||12

    Chapter 1

    Daniel Taken to Babylon

    Dan 1:1 In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it.
    Dan 1:2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of Shinar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god.

    • Nebuchandnezzar “thought” that he had won the victory, but it is important to understand here that God was in control. It was God who had allowed this to happen to punish, correct, and restore the Jewish nation. God is sovereign, a major focus point in the book of Daniel.
    • For more prophesies concerning the fall of Israel and Judah, see Leviticus, Chapter 26; the books of Habakkuk, Jeremiah, Isaiah and Zephaniah.
    • Shinar = Babylon, which is now in present day Iraq.
    • to the house of his god = the Babylonians worshipped numerous gods. King Nebuchadnezzar was making an offering to his false god, thanking him for the victory that he believed his god had given him over the God of Judah.

    Dan 1:3 And the king spake unto Ashpenaz the master of his eunuchs, that he should bring certain of the children of Israel, and of the king’s seed, and of the princes;

    • Next, the kings sets aside a group of gifted young men and grooms them for his special service.

    Dan 1:4 Children in whom was no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability in them to stand in the king’s palace, and whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans.

    • Children in whom was no blemish = these young men were being trained to be leaders, representing the leadership of Babylon. They were going to act as mediators between the Judean captives and the leaders of Babylon.
    • whom they might teach = The Babylons intended to indoctrinate the young men into the teachings of their culture and pagan religions. As you will soon read, these young men were able to resist this idea and not taking on any of their pagan beliefs.

    Dan 1:5 And the king appointed them a daily provision of the king’s meat, and of the wine which he drank: so nourishing them three years, that at the end thereof they might stand before the king.

    • daily provision of the king’s meat
    • = self indulgence in the finer things of the world. King Nebuchadnezzar meant to earn the favor and loyalty of these young men by seducing them to abandon their foreign ways and embrace Babylonian culture and paganism.

    Dan 1:6 Now among these were of the children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah:
    Dan 1:7 Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names: for he gave unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abednego.

    • prince of the eunuchs gave names = giving someone a new name demonstrates complete authority over that person, so in this instance Nebuchadnezzar was establishing his authority over the young men of Judah. Daniel, and his three friends names were changed from Hebrew names that honored God, to new names that honored the false Babylonian gods.

    Daniel’s Faithfulness

    Dan 1:8 But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king’s meat, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

    • Daniel purposed in his heart = Daniel was determined to be faithful to God even before he was faced with making any decision. The Hebrew might be translated “he fixed his will” or firmly resolved himself on that course of action.
    • would not defile himself = the kings diet included food that had been sacrificed to idols as well as things the Lord had commanded His people to not eat (such as pork). To east such things would have publicly identified Daniel with the false gods, and it would have placed him contrary to god’s commands. Daniel and his friends were determined not to be seduced into pagan practices, even while obeying the king’s will whenever it did not conflict with God’s Word. They were striving to be in the world but not of the world.

    Dan 1:9 Now God had brought Daniel into favour and tender love with the prince of the eunuchs.

    • God had brought Daniel into favour = God had specifically brought him into favor. The captivity was part of His deliberate plan, and He was using those who remained faithful to accomplish His purposes. All that was required of Daniel and his friends was for them to remain obedient to His Word, and the Lord would take care of the details.

    Dan 1:10 And the prince of the eunuchs said unto Daniel, I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your meat and your drink: for why should he see your faces worse liking than the children which are of your sort? then shall ye make me endanger my head to the king.
    Dan 1:11 Then said Daniel to Melzar, whom the prince of the eunuchs had set over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah,
    Dan 1:12 Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink.
    Dan 1:13 Then let our countenances be looked upon before thee, and the countenance of the children that eat of the portion of the king’s meat: and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.
    Dan 1:14 So he consented to them in this matter, and proved them ten days.

    This is yet another proof of God’s sovereign grace. God led this man to allow Daniel and his three friends to get an exception to the King’s policies. This was risky for the prince of the eunuchs.

    Dan 1:15 And at the end of ten days their countenances appeared fairer and fatter in flesh than all the children which did eat the portion of the king’s meat.

    This is not a biblical endorsement of vegetarianism. This is an example of God being in control and
    being involved in this situation.

    Dan 1:16 Thus Melzar took away the portion of their meat, and the wine that they should drink; and gave them pulse.
    Dan 1:17 As for these four children, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom: and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams.
    Dan 1:18 Now at the end of the days that the king had said he should bring them in, then the prince of the eunuchs brought them in before Nebuchadnezzar.
    Dan 1:19 And the king communed with them; and among them all was found none like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: therefore stood they before the king.
    Dan 1:20 And in all matters of wisdom and understanding, that the king enquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians and astrologers that were in all his realm.
    Dan 1:21 And Daniel continued even unto the first year of king Cyrus.


    Chapter 2

    Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream

    Dan 2:1 And in the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, wherewith his spirit was troubled, and his sleep brake from him.

    his spirit was troubled = God uses dreams to warn people. See:
    Genesis 3, encourage Joseph. Genesis 41, warns Pharaoh.

    Dan 2:2 Then the king commanded to call the magicians, and the astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, for to shew the king his dreams. So they came and stood before the king.

    astrologers, sorcerers. See my bible study entitled “Witchcraft and Sorcery“.

    Dan 2:3 And the king said unto them, I have dreamed a dream, and my spirit was troubled to know the dream.
    Dan 2:4 Then spake the Chaldeans to the king in Syriack, O king, live for ever: tell thy servants the dream, and we will shew the interpretation.

    Tell thy servants the dream = you can see that anyone can fake it. Anyone can hear a story, and then weave their own interpretation. But the King was smarter than that, he thought this was important, and he needed to know that he was getting the truthful, correct answer.

    Dan 2:5 The king answered and said to the Chaldeans, The thing is gone from me: if ye will not make known unto me the dream, with the interpretation thereof, ye shall be cut in pieces, and your houses shall be made a dunghill.

    ye shall be cut in pieces = if the astrologers and magicians were actually hearing from a “god”, then they should be able to get the dream. But, if they can’t tell the King the dream, then they were liars, and should be killed.

    Dan 2:6 But if ye shew the dream, and the interpretation thereof, ye shall receive of me gifts and rewards and great honour: therefore shew me the dream, and the interpretation thereof.
    Dan 2:7 They answered again and said, Let the king tell his servants the dream, and we will shew the interpretation of it.

    Let the king tell his servants the dream = by now, the magicians were terrified. They knew that they could not do what the king was demanding.

    Dan 2:8 The king answered and said, I know of certainty that ye would gain the time, because ye see the thing is gone from me.
    Dan 2:9 But if ye will not make known unto me the dream, there is but one decree for you: for ye have prepared lying and corrupt words to speak before me, till the time be changed: therefore tell me the dream, and I shall know that ye can shew me the interpretation thereof.
    Dan 2:10 The Chaldeans answered before the king, and said, There is not a man upon the earth that can shew the king’s matter: therefore there is no king, lord, nor ruler, that asked such things at any magician, or astrologer, or Chaldean.
    Dan 2:11 And it is a rare thing that the king requireth, and there is none other that can shew it before the king, except the gods, whose dwelling is not with flesh.

    whose dwelling is not with flesh = the Chaldeans / Babylonians were totally wrong about this. God IS present with us, he does dwell with us! He is ever present, omnipresent.

    Dan 2:12 For this cause the king was angry and very furious, and commanded to destroy all the wise men of Babylon.
    Dan 2:13 And the decree went forth that the wise men should be slain; and they sought Daniel and his fellows to be slain.

    they sought Daniel and his fellows = Daniel and his three friends were considered one of these men, they were in danger now too.

    Dan 2:14 Then Daniel answered with counsel and wisdom to Arioch the captain of the king’s guard, which was gone forth to slay the wise men of Babylon:

    answered with counsel and wisdom = here we go again, Daniel was being tactful, intelligent. Obviously God was with Daniel and clearing his path too.

    Dan 2:15 He answered and said to Arioch the king’s captain, Why is the decree so hasty from the king? Then Arioch made the thing known to Daniel.
    Dan 2:16 Then Daniel went in, and desired of the king that he would give him time, and that he would shew the king the interpretation.

    God Reveals Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream

    Dan 2:17 Then Daniel went to his house, and made the thing known to Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, his companions:
    Dan 2:18 That they would desire mercies of the God of heaven concerning this secret; that Daniel and his fellows should not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon.

    That they would desire mercies of the God = what do you do when you have a serious problem, you get on your knees and pray.

    Dan 2:19 Then was the secret revealed unto Daniel in a night vision. Then Daniel blessed the God of heaven.
    Dan 2:20 Daniel answered and said,

    Blessed be the name of God for ever and ever: for wisdom and might are his: Dan 2:21 And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding:
    Dan 2:22 He revealeth the deep and secret things: he knoweth what is in the darkness, and the light dwelleth with him.
    Dan 2:23 I thank thee, and praise thee, O thou God of my fathers, who hast given me wisdom and might, and hast made known unto me now what we desired of thee: for thou hast now made known unto us the king’s matter.
    Dan 2:24 Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, whom the king had ordained to destroy the wise men of Babylon: he went and said thus unto him; Destroy not the wise men of Babylon: bring me in before the king, and I will shew unto the king the interpretation.

    Dan 2:25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel before the king in haste, and said thus unto him, I have found a man of the captives of Judah, that will make known unto the king the interpretation.
    Dan 2:26 The king answered and said to Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, Art thou able to make known unto me the dream which I have seen, and the interpretation thereof?
    Dan 2:27 Daniel answered in the presence of the king, and said, The secret which the king hath demanded cannot the wise men, the astrologers, the magicians, the soothsayers, shew unto the king;
    Dan 2:28 But there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these;

    Notice that Daniel immediately gave all credit to the God of Israel, our God in heaven.

    Dan 2:29 As for thee, O king, thy thoughts came into thy mind upon thy bed, what should come to pass hereafter: and he that revealeth secrets maketh known to thee what shall come to pass.
    Dan 2:30 But as for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have more than any living, but for their sakes that shall make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart.

    Daniel Interprets the Dream

    Dan 2:31 Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible.
    Dan 2:32 This image’s head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,
    Dan 2:33 His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay.
    Dan 2:34 Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces.
    Dan 2:35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.
    Dan 2:36 This is the dream; and we will tell the interpretation thereof before the king.
    Dan 2:37 Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory.
    Dan 2:38 And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou art this head of gold.
    Dan 2:39 And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth.

    Dan 2:40 And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.
    Dan 2:41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.
    Dan 2:42 And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.
    Dan 2:43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.
    Dan 2:44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.
    Dan 2:45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.

    • Gold is Babylon, 605-539 BC.
    • Silver Chest and Arms is Medo-Persia, 539 – 331 BC.
    • Bronze Stomach and Thighs is Greece, 331 – 141 BC.
    • Iron and Fired Clay will be the existing world power at the time of Christ’s return

    Daniel Is Promoted

    Dan 2:46 Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an oblation and sweet odours unto him.
    Dan 2:47 The king answered unto Daniel, and said, Of a truth it is, that your God is a God of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, seeing thou couldest reveal this secret.
    Dan 2:48 Then the king made Daniel a great man, and gave him many great gifts, and made him ruler over the whole province of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise men of Babylon.
    Dan 2:49 Then Daniel requested of the king, and he set Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, over the affairs of the province of Babylon: but Daniel sat in the gate of the king.


    Chapter 3


    Chapter 4


    Chapter 5


    Chapter 6


    Chapter 7


    Chapter 8


    Chapter 9


    Chapter 10


    Chapter 11


    Chapter 12

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