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April 13, 2018

Exodus – start 4.13.2018

Filed under: Old & New Testament — Adam Osborne @ 3:57 pm

EXODUS

Chapters: | 1 | 2 | 3| 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |9 | |10 | |11 ||12 |13 |14 |15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | | 32 | | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38| 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50


Chapter 1

Israel Increases Greatly in Egypt

Exo 1:1 These are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob, each with his household:
Exo 1:2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah,
Exo 1:3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin,
Exo 1:4 Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher.
Exo 1:5 All the descendants of Jacob were seventy persons; Joseph was already in Egypt.
Exo 1:6 Then Joseph died, and all his brothers and all that generation.
Exo 1:7 But the people of Israel were fruitful and increased greatly; they multiplied and grew exceedingly strong, so that the land was filled with them.
Pharaoh Oppresses Israel

Exo 1:8 Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who did not know Joseph.
Exo 1:9 And he said to his people, “Behold, the people of Israel are too many and too mighty for us.
Exo 1:10 Come, let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they multiply, and, if war breaks out, they join our enemies and fight against us and escape from the land.”
Exo 1:11 Therefore they set taskmasters over them to afflict them with heavy burdens. They built for Pharaoh store cities, Pithom and Raamses.
Exo 1:12 But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and the more they spread abroad. And the Egyptians were in dread of the people of Israel.
Exo 1:13 So they ruthlessly made the people of Israel work as slaves
Exo 1:14 and made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and brick, and in all kinds of work in the field. In all their work they ruthlessly made them work as slaves.
Exo 1:15 Then the king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was named Shiphrah and the other Puah,
Exo 1:16 “When you serve as midwife to the Hebrew women and see them on the birthstool, if it is a son, you shall kill him, but if it is a daughter, she shall live.”
Exo 1:17 But the midwives feared God and did not do as the king of Egypt commanded them, but let the male children live.
Exo 1:18 So the king of Egypt called the midwives and said to them, “Why have you done this, and let the male children live?”
Exo 1:19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, for they are vigorous and give birth before the midwife comes to them.”
Exo 1:20 So God dealt well with the midwives. And the people multiplied and grew very strong.
Exo 1:21 And because the midwives feared God, he gave them families.
Exo 1:22 Then Pharaoh commanded all his people, “Every son that is born to the Hebrews you shall cast into the Nile, but you shall let every daughter live.”


Chapter 2

The Birth of Moses

Exo 2:1 Now a man from the house of Levi went and took as his wife a Levite woman.
Exo 2:2 The woman conceived and bore a son, and when she saw that he was a fine child, she hid him three months.
Exo 2:3 When she could hide him no longer, she took for him a basket made of bulrushes and daubed it with bitumen and pitch. She put the child in it and placed it among the reeds by the river bank.
Exo 2:4 And his sister stood at a distance to know what would be done to him.
Exo 2:5 Now the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe at the river, while her young women walked beside the river. She saw the basket among the reeds and sent her servant woman, and she took it.
Exo 2:6 When she opened it, she saw the child, and behold, the baby was crying. She took pity on him and said, “This is one of the Hebrews’ children.”
Exo 2:7 Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Shall I go and call you a nurse from the Hebrew women to nurse the child for you?”
Exo 2:8 And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Go.” So the girl went and called the child’s mother.
Exo 2:9 And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Take this child away and nurse him for me, and I will give you your wages.” So the woman took the child and nursed him.
Exo 2:10 When the child grew older, she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. She named him Moses, “Because,” she said, “I drew him out of the water.”

Moses Flees to Midian

Exo 2:11 One day, when Moses had grown up, he went out to his people and looked on their burdens, and he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his people.
Exo 2:12 He looked this way and that, and seeing no one, he struck down the Egyptian and hid him in the sand.
Exo 2:13 When he went out the next day, behold, two Hebrews were struggling together. And he said to the man in the wrong, “Why do you strike your companion?”
Exo 2:14 He answered, “Who made you a prince and a judge over us? Do you mean to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid, and thought, “Surely the thing is known.”
Exo 2:15 When Pharaoh heard of it, he sought to kill Moses. But Moses fled from Pharaoh and stayed in the land of Midian. And he sat down by a well.
Exo 2:16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came and drew water and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock.
Exo 2:17 The shepherds came and drove them away, but Moses stood up and saved them, and watered their flock.
Exo 2:18 When they came home to their father Reuel, he said, “How is it that you have come home so soon today?”
Exo 2:19 They said, “An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds and even drew water for us and watered the flock.”
Exo 2:20 He said to his daughters, “Then where is he? Why have you left the man? Call him, that he may eat bread.”
Exo 2:21 And Moses was content to dwell with the man, and he gave Moses his daughter Zipporah.
Exo 2:22 She gave birth to a son, and he called his name Gershom, for he said, “I have been a sojourner in a foreign land.”
God Hears Israel’s Groaning

Exo 2:23 During those many days the king of Egypt died, and the people of Israel groaned because of their slavery and cried out for help. Their cry for rescue from slavery came up to God.
Exo 2:24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.
Exo 2:25 God saw the people of Israel—and God knew.


Chapter 3

  • God was aware of the problem with his children who were in bondage, and He had a plan.
  • The person who God had chosen to lead his people out of bondage, didn’t know the plan, and was afraid or felt incompetent to carry out the plan.

Moses and the Burning Bush

1. Now Moses was tending the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the far side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God.

  • From Prince, to not even owning his own flock. He was tending Jethro’s flock.
  • Tending the flock – Hebrew suggests “habitual occupation”.
  • Horeb – eventually called Mt. Sinai.

2 There the angel of the Lord appeared to him in flames of fire from within a bush. Moses saw that though the bush was on fire it did not burn up.
3 So Moses thought, “I will go over and see this strange sight—why the bush does not burn up.”

  • Some people compare the burning bush with the cross…..the words used for bush means to “stick or prick”, which people compare to the crown of thorns….
  • Angel of the Lord – “Clarke’s commentary – Not a created angel, for he is called “Jehovah

4 When the Lord saw that he had gone over to look, God called to him from within the bush, “Moses! Moses!” And Moses said, “Here I am.”

  • God didn’t speak to Moses until He had Moses’ attention. Often God’s Word doesn’t touch our heart the way that it might because we don’t give it our attention.
  • God called to him from within the bush – it is said that this is another occasion where Jesus appeared before His incarnation in the Old Testament as the Angel of the Lord, as he did many times. Judges 2:1-5; Judges 6:11-24; Judges 13:3-22.
  • Moses Moses – God knows us by name! Notice, he called him twice, which implied importance and urgency, as when God called Abraham Abraham.

5 “Do not come any closer,” God said. “Take off your sandals, for the place where you are standing is holy ground.”

  • There will always be distance between God and man. Even in perfection man will never be equal to God.
  • Sandals – removing sandals showed an appropriate humilty, because the poorest and most needy have no shoes, and servants normally went barefoot. Taking off the shoes also was an emblem of laying aside the pollutions contracted by walking in the way of sin.

6 Then he said, “I am the God of your father,[a] the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.” At this, Moses hid his face, because he was afraid to look at God.

  • God revealed himself to by declaring His relationship to the patriarchs. Tis reminded Moses that God is the God of the covenant, and His covenant with Israel was still valid and important. It might had been 400 years since the promise, but God remembered, and he was reminding Moses.
  • afraid to look at God – Moses responded as a man who knew he was not only a creature, but also a sinful creature.

7 The Lord said, “I have indeed seen the misery of my people in Egypt. I have heard them crying out because of their slave drivers, and I am concerned about their suffering.
8 So I have come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land into a good and spacious land, a land flowing with milk and honey—the home of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites.
9 And now the cry of the Israelites has reached me, and I have seen the way the Egyptians are oppressing them.
10 So now, go. I am sending you to Pharaoh to bring my people the Israelites out of Egypt.”
11 But Moses said to God, “Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh and bring the Israelites out of Egypt?”
12 And God said, “I will be with you. And this will be the sign to you that it is I who have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you[b] will worship God on this mountain.”
13 Moses said to God, “Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ Then what shall I tell them?”
14 God said to Moses, “I am who I am.[c] This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I am has sent me to you.’”
15 God also said to Moses, “Say to the Israelites, ‘The Lord,[d] the God of your fathers—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob—has sent me to you.’ “This is my name forever, the name you shall call me from generation to generation.
16 “Go, assemble the elders of Israel and say to them, ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers—the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob—appeared to me and said: I have watched over you and have seen what has been done to you in Egypt.
17 And I have promised to bring you up out of your misery in Egypt into the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites—a land flowing with milk and honey.’
18 “The elders of Israel will listen to you. Then you and the elders are to go to the king of Egypt and say to him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Let us take a three-day journey into the wilderness to offer sacrifices to the Lord our God.’
19 But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go unless a mighty hand compels him.
20 So I will stretch out my hand and strike the Egyptians with all the wonders that I will perform among them. After that, he will let you go.
21 “And I will make the Egyptians favorably disposed toward this people, so that when you leave you will not go empty-handed.
22 Every woman is to ask her neighbor and any woman living in her house for articles of silver and gold and for clothing, which you will put on your sons and daughters. And so you will plunder the Egyptians.”

Chapter 4

Signs for Moses

1. Moses answered, “What if they do not believe me or listen to me and say, ‘The Lord did not appear to you’?”
2 Then the Lord said to him, “What is that in your hand?” “A staff,” he replied.
3 The Lord said, “Throw it on the ground.” Moses threw it on the ground and it became a snake, and he ran from it.
4 Then the Lord said to him, “Reach out your hand and take it by the tail.” So Moses reached out and took hold of the snake and it turned back into a staff in his hand.
5 “This,” said the Lord, “is so that they may believe that the Lord, the God of their fathers—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob—has appeared to you.”
6 Then the Lord said, “Put your hand inside your cloak.” So Moses put his hand into his cloak, and when he took it out, the skin was leprous[a]—it had become as white as snow.
7 “Now put it back into your cloak,” he said. So Moses put his hand back into his cloak, and when he took it out, it was restored, like the rest of his flesh.
8 Then the Lord said, “If they do not believe you or pay attention to the first sign, they may believe the second.
9 But if they do not believe these two signs or listen to you, take some water from the Nile and pour it on the dry ground. The water you take from the river will become blood on the ground.”
10 Moses said to the Lord, “Pardon your servant, Lord. I have never been eloquent, neither in the past nor since you have spoken to your servant. I am slow of speech and tongue.”
11 The Lord said to him, “Who gave human beings their mouths? Who makes them deaf or mute? Who gives them sight or makes them blind? Is it not I, the Lord?
12 Now go; I will help you speak and will teach you what to say.”
13 But Moses said, “Pardon your servant, Lord. Please send someone else.”
14 Then the Lord’s anger burned against Moses and he said, “What about your brother, Aaron the Levite? I know he can speak well. He is already on his way to meet you, and he will be glad to see you.
15 You shall speak to him and put words in his mouth; I will help both of you speak and will teach you what to do.
16 He will speak to the people for you, and it will be as if he were your mouth and as if you were God to him.
17 But take this staff in your hand so you can perform the signs with it.”
Moses Returns to Egypt
18 Then Moses went back to Jethro his father-in-law and said to him, “Let me return to my own people in Egypt to see if any of them are still alive.”
Jethro said, “Go, and I wish you well.”
19 Now the Lord had said to Moses in Midian, “Go back to Egypt, for all those who wanted to kill you are dead.”
20 So Moses took his wife and sons, put them on a donkey and started back to Egypt. And he took the staff of God in his hand.
21 The Lord said to Moses, “When you return to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders I have given you the power to do. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.
22 Then say to Pharaoh, ‘This is what the Lord says: Israel is my firstborn son,
23 and I told you, “Let my son go, so he may worship me.” But you refused to let him go; so I will kill your firstborn son.’”
24 At a lodging place on the way, the Lord met Moses[b] and was about to kill him.
25 But Zipporah took a flint knife, cut off her son’s foreskin and touched Moses’ feet with it.[c] “Surely you are a bridegroom of blood to me,” she said.
26 So the Lord let him alone. (At that time she said “bridegroom of blood,” referring to circumcision.)
27 The Lord said to Aaron, “Go into the wilderness to meet Moses.” So he met Moses at the mountain of God and kissed him.
28 Then Moses told Aaron everything the Lord had sent him to say, and also about all the signs he had commanded him to perform.
29 Moses and Aaron brought together all the elders of the Israelites,
30 and Aaron told them everything the Lord had said to Moses. He also performed the signs before the people,
31 and they believed. And when they heard that the Lord was concerned about them and had seen their misery, they bowed down and worshiped.

1. Give a summary of Chapters 3 and 4.

  • Moses meets God at the burning bush.
  • God tells Moses what his mission is.
  • Moses freaks out.
  • God tells Moses that He will allow his brother Aaron to help.
  • God demonstrates miracles to help convince the timid Moses.

2. Compare Moses call to other calls in the bible:

  • 1 Samuel 3:1-21 – The Lord called Samuel…who was being taught under Eli. Lord called Samuel, Samuel told Eli “Here I am”…etc….
  • 1 Samuel 9:27 -10:8 – Samuel told Saul that the Lord had appointed him to lead his people. The biblical text actually says “Lord has anointed you ruler over his inheritance”
  • Isaiah 6:1-13 – Isaiah saw a vision “Woe is me, for I am a man of unclean lips, and I have seen God”. God commissioned Isaiah as a prophet to Israel.
  • Jeremiah 1:4-19 – God calls Jeremiah… “The word of the Lord came to me, saying, 5 “Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, before you were born I set you apart; I appointed you as a prophet to the nations.” Something noteworth here, he felt unworthy and too young, and not competent…..Just like Moses did.
  • Ezekiel 1:1-3:11 – Ezekiel called to be a prophet. A huge vision, then a voice…

    He said: “Son of man, I am sending you to the Israelites, to a rebellious nation that has rebelled against me; they and their ancestors have been in revolt against me to this very day. 4 The people to whom I am sending you are obstinate and stubborn. Say to them, ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says.’ 5 And whether they listen or fail to listen—for they are a rebellious people—they will know that a prophet has been among them.

  • Matt 4:18-22 – Jesus calling his first disciples, James and his brother John, fishing by the river.
  • Acts 9:1-9 – Jesus called Saul (Paul), on the road to Damascus.

3. What was it about the burning bush that first attracted Moses? Verses 3:1-3

  • The bush didn’t burn up….just kept burning.

4. How did Moses react when he learned he was in the presence of God?

  • He his his face, he was afraid to look at God.

5. Verse 3:2 “Angel of the Lord”. Hebrew and Greek terms could be translated as “messenger” or “angel”.

  • Supernatural being
  • Heavenly being sent by God to deal with mankind
  • Sometimes speaks “as God”, first person singular. Notice, in these verses, it was God himself in the burning bush.
  • Genesis 16:7-11 speaks of the angel of the Lord, but Genesis 16:13 says Hagar saw the Lord Himself.
  • One commentary writer said: “It is certain that from the beginning God used angels in human form, with human voices, in order to communicate with man.”

6. FIRE!. God’s revelation of himself and his will was often accompanied by fire.

  • Exodus 13:21 – By day the Lord went ahead of them in a pillar of cloud to guide them on their way and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel by day or night.
  • Exodus 19:18 – Mount Sinai was covered with smoke, because the Lord descended on it in fire. The smoke billowed up from it like smoke from a furnace, and the whole mountain[a] trembled violently.
  • 1 Kings 18:24 Then you call on the name of your god, and I will call on the name of the Lord. The god who answers by fire—he is God.” Then all the people said, “What you say is good.”

7. Holy. Set apart from the commonplace. Most people incorrectly thought of Power, Strangeness, Inscrutability as being Holy. BUT, God wanted to change the nation’s idea of holiness.

  • Stressed that only HE is holy, not gods or spirits of the pagans
  • What belonged to Him was untouchably, radically holy, and set apart in dramatic ceremonies to emphasize its separation from the commonplace.
  • Morality, righteousness is an essential trait of holiness.
  • No one unrighteous can approach a holy God.
  • Everyone set apart for the Lord had to be righteous or face God’s wrath.

8. The Lord revealed what He intended to do about Israel’s suffering, and Moses’ part in the plan. Verses 3:7-10. What five objections did Moses raise?

  • 3.11 Who am I that I should go?
  • 3:13 What will I tell them?
  • 4:1 What if they do not believe me or listen to me?
  • 4:10 I am slow of speech
  • 4:13 Please send someone else.

9. How did God respond to the false humility of “Who am I”?

  • 3:11 look dude, I made you
  • 3:12 Now go, I will help you speak and I will teach you.

10. How did God deal with Moses’ second objection?

  • Anger.
  • Assigned his brother Aaron to help him with the speaking part of the mission.

11. NAME: In ancient times, someone’s name expressed his character, his identity. Although the Lord’s name was in use before now, the Lord now starts to reveal what that name means through what he does.

  • Exodus 6:3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name Jehovah was I not known to them.
  • Exodus 15:3 The Lord is a man of war: the Lord is his name.
  • Exodus 33:18-19 And he said, I beseech thee, shew me thy glory. 19 And he said, I will make all my goodness pass before thee, and I will proclaim the name of the Lord before thee; and will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will shew mercy on whom I will shew mercy.
  • Exodus 34: 5-7 And the Lord descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the Lord. 6 And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed, The Lord, The Lord God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, 7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.
    • I AM WHO I AM – God’s active presence. A being with divine presence to Moses and Israel. “I AM” in 3:14 is the Hebrew word “I will be”…..as in “I will be with you”….
    • The LORD – Hebrew is YHWH. “He is” or “He will be”. The Hebrews later decided that God’s name was too holy to use at all so they say Adonai (my Lord) whenever we see YHWH. Modern scholars think it is pronounced “Yahweh.” Some versions use “Jehovah”, and other translations use “the Lord.”

12, In 3:14-22, the Lord elaborates on the basic plan in 3:7-10. What new elements does He add?

  • 3:7-10 God says he has heard his people and it’s time to rescue them.
  • 14-22 Further explains plan, get Elders, Pharoah will not let the people go, but God will strike the Egyptians, then Pharoah will let them go, with lots of riches.

13. FLOWING WITH MILK AND HONEY
Egypt receives almost no rainfall, and it’s only arable land is the four percent that surrounds the Nile. Canaan was very different. It lay on the western tip of the Fertile Crescent and while it was not uniformly lush, it received enough rain and had enough streams and springs to permit the cultivation of many crops and the raising of livestock.

14. In his third objection (see 4:1), Moses attributes unbelief to Israel. To what extent do you think this was fair, and to what extent does it just show Moses’ lack of faith?

  • Moses was proven wrong on the belief of Israel at first. At first, the Jewish leaders believed.

15. How did God disarm this third objection? Verses 4:2-9.

  • God showed him immediate miracles.

16. How is Moses’ objection that he is not eloquent answered in 1 Corinthians 1:17-2:5?

1 Corinthians 1:17 to 2:5
17 For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect.
18 For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God.
19 For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.
20 Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?
21 For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.
22 For the Jews require a sign, and the Greeks seek after wisdom:
23 But we preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumblingblock, and unto the Greeks foolishness;
24 But unto them which are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God.
25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is stronger than men.
26 For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called:
27 But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty;
28 And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are:
29 That no flesh should glory in his presence.
30 But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption:
31 That, according as it is written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.
And I, brethren, when I came to you, came not with excellency of speech or of wisdom, declaring unto you the testimony of God.
2 For I determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified.
3 And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling.
4 And my speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of man’s wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power:
5 That your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God.

17. Why do you think God made the concession in 4:14-17? What does this say about his character?

14 Then the Lord’s anger burned against Moses and he said, “What about your brother, Aaron the Levite? I know he can speak well. He is already on his way to meet you, and he will be glad to see you. 15 You shall speak to him and put words in his mouth; I will help both of you speak and will teach you what to do. 16 He will speak to the people for you, and it will be as if he were your mouth and as if you were God to him. 17 But take this staff in your hand so you can perform the signs with it.”
Moses Returns to Egypt

18. How would you paraphrase the Lord’s response to the fourth excuse? Verses 4:11-12.

11 The Lord said to him, “Who gave human beings their mouths? Who makes them deaf or mute? Who gives them sight or makes them blind? Is it not I, the Lord? 12 Now go; I will help you speak and will teach you what to say.”

19. If nothing else, Moses’ excuses gave the Lord a chance to reveal Himself and His character. What does 3:1-4:17 reveal about God?

  • God knows all; can perform miracles as needed upon demand; will provide what you need to accomplish His will; is concerned for his people.

20. What was Moses’ character at this stage in his life?

  • Unsure of himself; scared of Egyptian and also Israelites.

21. THE LORD WAS ABOUT TO KILL HIM (4:24-26). What was that all about?

  • God had commanded that all of Abraham’s male descendants be circumsised (Genesis 17:9-14) as a sign of “cutting” the covenant and offering themselves wholly to God.
  • The rite invited God to “cut off” the man from the nation if he broke the covenant.
  • However, the Egyptians found circumcision disgusting, so Moses may not have been circumcised as a child.
  • Moses’ wife performed the rite on their son and with the severed foreskin touched Moses’ “feet.” (might be polite substitute for the sexual organs, as in Deuteronomy 28:27)
  • In that way, his child’s circumcision would count for him as well.
  • The other possible interpretation is that Moses had not bothered to circusize his son, and God held him responsible for the neglect.

22. What further information do we get about God’s plans in 4:18-23?

18 Then Moses went back to Jethro his father-in-law and said to him, “Let me return to my own people in Egypt to see if any of them are still alive.”
Jethro said, “Go, and I wish you well.”
19 Now the Lord had said to Moses in Midian, “Go back to Egypt, for all those who wanted to kill you are dead.” 20 So Moses took his wife and sons, put them on a donkey and started back to Egypt. And he took the staff of God in his hand.
21 The Lord said to Moses, “When you return to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders I have given you the power to do. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go. 22 Then say to Pharaoh, ‘This is what the Lord says: Israel is my firstborn son, 23 and I told you, “Let my son go, so he may worship me.” But you refused to let him go; so I will kill your firstborn son.


Chapter 5

  • Moses was worried that something would go wrong
  • Either Israel wouldn’t believe him or he would louse it up.
  • But, the Hebrews did believe him and sent him and Aaron to go see Pharaoh.
  • But, something goes wrong.

Making Bricks Without Straw

Exo 5:1 Afterward Moses and Aaron went and said to Pharaoh, “Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel, ‘Let my people go, that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.'”

People were allowed time off for worship on their “gods” in Egypt. However, the way that this was worded, it stated that the Hebrew God was “superior” to Pharaoh. This was an insult, and a challenge to Pharaoh, and would not go over well.

Exo 5:2 But Pharaoh said, “Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice and let Israel go? I do not know the LORD, and moreover, I will not let Israel go.”

Pharaoh was rejecting the Lord, and the Lord’s superiority over him. Pharaoh was proud, and self-satisfied, and denying God… like that mentioned in Proverbs 30:9

Proverbs 30:9 lest I be full and deny you and say, “Who is the LORD?” or lest I be poor and steal and profane the name of my God.

Exo 5:3 Then they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please let us go a three days’ journey into the wilderness that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God, lest he fall upon us with pestilence or with the sword.”

The fact that the Hebrews were worried about the Lord’s wrath, this gave the Pharaoh another reason to believe that the Hebrew nation would serve the Lord, and not Pharaoh.

Exo 5:4 But the king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you take the people away from their work? Get back to your burdens.”

Moses and Aaron had been meeting with the people. Pharaoh was aware of this, and these meetings had been taking people away from their productive labor. Moses and Aaron were a problem to Pharaoh. Yet, another problem for Pharaoh.

Exo 5:5 And Pharaoh said, “Behold, the people of the land are now many, and you make them rest from their burdens!”
Exo 5:6 The same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people and their foremen,
Exo 5:7 “You shall no longer give the people straw to make bricks, as in the past; let them go and gather straw for themselves.
Exo 5:8 But the number of bricks that they made in the past you shall impose on them, you shall by no means reduce it, for they are idle. Therefore they cry, ‘Let us go and offer sacrifice to our God.’
Exo 5:9 Let heavier work be laid on the men that they may labor at it and pay no regard to lying words.”
Exo 5:10 So the taskmasters and the foremen of the people went out and said to the people, “Thus says Pharaoh, ‘I will not give you straw.

  • Taskmasters were Egyptians.
  • Foremen were Jews, Jews who had been placed in positions of responsibility to ensure that the Jews were getting their work done. The Foremen would be held accountable to the Egyptians if the work didn’t get done.

Exo 5:11 Go and get your straw yourselves wherever you can find it, but your work will not be reduced in the least.'”
Exo 5:12 So the people were scattered throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw.
Exo 5:13 The taskmasters were urgent, saying, “Complete your work, your daily task each day, as when there was straw.”
Exo 5:14 And the foremen of the people of Israel, whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over them, were beaten and were asked, “Why have you not done all your task of making bricks today and yesterday, as in the past?”
Exo 5:15 Then the foremen of the people of Israel came and cried to Pharaoh, “Why do you treat your servants like this?
Exo 5:16 No straw is given to your servants, yet they say to us, ‘Make bricks!’ And behold, your servants are beaten; but the fault is in your own people.”
Exo 5:17 But he said, “You are idle, you are idle; that is why you say, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to the LORD.’
Exo 5:18 Go now and work. No straw will be given you, but you must still deliver the same number of bricks.”
Exo 5:19 The foremen of the people of Israel saw that they were in trouble when they said, “You shall by no means reduce your number of bricks, your daily task each day.”

This proves that the Egyptians kept track of each day’s totals. Life was not easy for the Hebrew nation.

Exo 5:20 They met Moses and Aaron, who were waiting for them, as they came out from Pharaoh;

At this point, Moses and Aaron didn’t have much, if any, authority or power or trust from their own people. Originally the Jewish leaders believed them and trusted them, but not now.

Exo 5:21 and they said to them, “The LORD look on you and judge, because you have made us stink in the sight of Pharaoh and his servants, and have put a sword in their hand to kill us.”

Obedience to our Lord does not always bring immediate blessing. The Israelites are angry at Moses and Aaron. If things weren’t bad enough, now their work is even harder.

Exo 5:22 Then Moses turned to the LORD and said, “O Lord, why have you done evil to this people? Why did you ever send me?
Exo 5:23 For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in your name, he has done evil to this people, and you have not delivered your people at all.”

40 years ago, Moses was treated badly by his own people for killing the Egyptian who was mistreating the Hebrews.

Exo 2:14 He answered, “Who made you a prince and a judge over us? Do you mean to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid, and thought, “Surely the thing is known.”

Now, Moses was once again being treated badly by his own people for bringing more work, stress, and troubles to the Jews. Moses was feeling very confused right now, his worst dreams was coming true. These were the things he was worried about from the beginning when he questioned the Lord as to if he could do this.


Chapter 6


God Promises Deliverance

Exo 6:1 But the LORD said to Moses, “Now you shall see what I will do to Pharaoh; for with a strong hand he will send them out, and with a strong hand he will drive them out of his land.”

strong hand. The Lord’s strong hand, not Pharaoh’s.

3:19 But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go unless a mighty hand compels him. 20 So I will stretch out my hand and strike the Egyptians with all the wonders that I will perform among them. After that, he will let you go.

Exo 6:2 God spoke to Moses and said to him, “I am the LORD.

I am the Lord: El Shaddai

  • authority, power
  • discernment
  • justice
  • chastening
  • protection
  • destruction
  • provisions and blessings
  • hearer of prayers
  • El is prominent in Genesis as a name for God in his dealings with the patriarchs. El is also the Hebrew word for strength. El is also a generic word for deity. Yahweh (the LORD) is a personal name.

    Exo 6:3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as God Almighty, but by my name the LORD I did not make myself known to them.
    Exo 6:4 I also established my covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan, the land in which they lived as sojourners.
    Exo 6:5 Moreover, I have heard the groaning of the people of Israel whom the Egyptians hold as slaves, and I have remembered my covenant.

    1Chronicles 16:15 Remember his covenant forever, the word that he commanded, for a thousand generations, 16 the covenant that he made with Abraham, his sworn promise to Isaac, 17 which he confirmed to Jacob as a statute, to Israel as an everlasting covenant, 18 saying, “To you I will give the land of Canaan, as your portion for an inheritance.”

    I have remembered my covenant: is a way of saying that God is about to act in accordance with his covenant with the ancestors.

    Psalms 98:1 A Psalm. Oh sing to the LORD a new song, for he has done marvelous things! His right hand and his holy arm have worked salvation for him. 2 The LORD has made known his salvation; he has revealed his righteousness in the sight of the nations. 3 He has remembered his steadfast love and faithfulness to the house of Israel. All the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God.

    Psalms 115:12 The LORD has remembered us; he will bless us; he will bless the house of Israel; he will bless the house of Aaron;

    Exo 6:6 Say therefore to the people of Israel, ‘I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from slavery to them, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great acts of judgment.

    I will redeem you: a “legal” declaration, as in a close relative, like that pictured by the Kingsman Redeemer in the book of Ruth.

    Outstretched arm: this has significant meaning because in Egyptian art and literature, Pharaoh was pictured in battle gear with his arms stretched out as a way of showing how powerful he was.

    great acts of judgment: would include actions taken against the gods of Egypt. There are many who point out that each of the 10 plagues against Egypt was an attack against supposed Egyptian gods.

    Exo 6:7 I will take you to be my people, and I will be your God, and you shall know that I am the LORD your God, who has brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.
    Exo 6:8 I will bring you into the land that I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. I will give it to you for a possession. I am the LORD.'”

    Both the Lord, and also the people of Israel would be known by what the Lord is preparing to do. Bringing glory to the Lord is a repeated theme in the book of Exodus. What He is going to do, is beyond what any King of this world could do. What He will do would take divine intervention.

    Exo 6:9 Moses spoke thus to the people of Israel, but they did not listen to Moses, because of their broken spirit and harsh slavery.

    This verse is a lesson for all of us. When we are discouraged, or when we are angry, we have a tendency to not listen to God.

    Exo 6:10 So the LORD said to Moses,
    Exo 6:11 “Go in, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt to let the people of Israel go out of his land.”
    Exo 6:12 But Moses said to the LORD, “Behold, the people of Israel have not listened to me. How then shall Pharaoh listen to me, for I am of uncircumcised lips?”

    The Lord had a plan. He tells Moses to try again. This was a lesson to the Pharaoh, and this was a lesson for Moses and Aaron, as well as the nation of Israel.

    uncircumsised lips: used elsewhere in the terms of uncircumcised ears, as well as derogatory statements about other nations opposed to Israel.

    Exo 6:13 But the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge about the people of Israel and about Pharaoh king of Egypt: to bring the people of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

    The Genealogy of Moses and Aaron

    Exo 6:14 These are the heads of their fathers’ houses: the sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi; these are the clans of Reuben.
    Exo 6:15 The sons of Simeon: Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman; these are the clans of Simeon.
    Exo 6:16 These are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari, the years of the life of Levi being 137 years.
    Exo 6:17 The sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei, by their clans.
    Exo 6:18 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, the years of the life of Kohath being 133 years.
    Exo 6:19 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the clans of the Levites according to their generations.
    Exo 6:20 Amram took as his wife Jochebed his father’s sister, and she bore him Aaron and Moses, the years of the life of Amram being 137 years.
    Exo 6:21 The sons of Izhar: Korah, Nepheg, and Zichri.
    Exo 6:22 The sons of Uzziel: Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.
    Exo 6:23 Aaron took as his wife Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and the sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
    Exo 6:24 The sons of Korah: Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph; these are the clans of the Korahites.
    Exo 6:25 Eleazar, Aaron’s son, took as his wife one of the daughters of Putiel, and she bore him Phinehas. These are the heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites by their clans.
    Exo 6:26 These are the Aaron and Moses to whom the LORD said: “Bring out the people of Israel from the land of Egypt by their hosts.”
    Exo 6:27 It was they who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt about bringing out the people of Israel from Egypt, this Moses and this Aaron.
    Exo 6:28 On the day when the LORD spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt,
    Exo 6:29 the LORD said to Moses, “I am the LORD; tell Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say to you.”
    Exo 6:30 But Moses said to the LORD, “Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips. How will Pharaoh listen to me?”


    Chapter 7

    Moses and Aaron Before Pharaoh

    The Lord knew Pharaoh is not about to listen to some desert shepherd claiming to be a prophet of some tribal god.
    Since pharaoh says he doesn’t know the Lord well enough to obey him (5:2), the Lord will see to it that he gets to know the God of Israel better.

    Exo 7:1 And the LORD said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet.

    • I have made thee a god – At Moses’ word every plague shall come, and at thy command each shall be removed. Thus Moses must have appeared as a god to Pharaoh.
    • Shall be a prophet: The passage is an important one as illustrating the primary and essential characteristic of a prophet, he is the declarer of God’s will and purpose.

    Exo 7:2 You shall speak all that I command you, and your brother Aaron shall tell Pharaoh to let the people of Israel go out of his land.

    • that he send the children of Israel out of his land: this was the principal thing to be insisted upon; and all that was said or done to him was to bring about this end, the release of the children of Israel out of Egypt.

    Exo 7:3 But I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and though I multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt,

    • Heardening of pharaoh’s heart – this way it would be clear that when the Israelites left Egypt it was not because of the persuasiveness of Moses or the wise leadership of Pharaoh.
    • John Gill: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go; that is, not directly, not for some time, not until all the wonders are shown, and plagues inflicted to bring him to it:

    Exo 7:4 Pharaoh will not listen to you. Then I will lay my hand on Egypt and bring my hosts, my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great acts of judgment.

    The Lord is starting to reveal His plan to Moses. “out of the land of Egypt by great acts of judgment. As you will read, God will demonstrate that He ALONE is God. Pharaoh’s magicians can’t do what the Lord does. The Lord will prove, unquestionably, that He is LORD of all.

    Exo 7:5 The Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I stretch out my hand against Egypt and bring out the people of Israel from among them.”

    • shall know: i.e. by a great experience. That was the great object of all these ten plagues
    • I may lay mine hand upon Egypt, etc. – The succession of terrible judgments with which the country was about to be scourged would fully demonstrate the supremacy of Israel’s God.

    Exo 7:6 Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the LORD commanded them.

    • And Moses and Aaron did as the Lord commanded them – After this they never showed any reluctance, or made any objection to any message they were sent with, or any work they were ordered to do, but went about it at once, and performed it with all readiness and cheerfulness:
    • so did they – which is not a superfluous and redundant expression, but very emphatic, showing with what care and diligence they did every thing, and how exactly they conformed in all things to the divine will.

    Exo 7:7 Now Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three years old, when they spoke to Pharaoh.

    • Their ages would indicate that they were not likely to be misled by the enthusiasm of youth. The world is slow to take young men into its confidence.
    • Their ages would be likely to command the respect of those with whom they had to do. The world wants men of tried energy and long experience to achieve its moral emancipation; men in whom hot passion has calmed into a settled force.

    Exo 7:8 Then the LORD said to Moses and Aaron,
    Exo 7:9 “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Prove yourselves by working a miracle,’ then you shall say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it may become a serpent.'”

    • Serpent/snake: pharaoh wore a cobra made of metal on the front of his headdress as a symbol of sovereignty and protection for the King and a danger for his enemies, so that all would respect his commands. But, when you look at the Hebrew word it means a crocodile; a marine or land monster, that is, sea serpent or jackal: – dragon, sea-monster, serpent, whale. Adam Clarke translate this as “whale”.
    • Staff: in Egypt, a staff and a snake is a symbol of power and authority. See Egyptian art for hints and clues.
    • Notice, this “event” isn’t one of the Ten Plagues, but this was indeed a miracle.

    Exo 7:10 So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did just as the LORD commanded. Aaron cast down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants, and it became a serpent.
    Exo 7:11 Then Pharaoh summoned the wise men and the sorcerers, and they, the magicians of Egypt, also did the same by their secret arts.

      Here in Exodus, the names the sorcerers aren’t mention, but they are mentioned in the New Testament:

      • 2 Timothy 3:8 (KJV) Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth: men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith.
      • both of those names are Egyptian names

    Exo 7:12 For each man cast down his staff, and they became serpents. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs.

    • ” The magicians were able to imitate the trick of turning staffs into snakes (8-12). However, what do you think it signified that Aaron’s staff swallowed theirs?
    • God was more powerful than the magicians.
    • God’s true miracles devour all lying wonders of Satan.
    • Background on Israel – Israel was unique among ancient cultures in that all forms of occult activity were outlawed because of the people of God were to trust him and his provisions for their security. (Lv 19:26-31 ; Dt 18:9-14 ; 2 Kings 21:1-12)

    Exo 7:13 Still Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the LORD had said.

    The First Plague: Water Turned to Blood

    Exo 7:14 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hardened; he refuses to let the people go.

    • Each plague that has an announcement comes with the same command: “Let my people go, so that they may worship me.” The exception is the 10th plague. The last plague, Moses informed Pharaoh that after this last plague, Pharaoh’s own people would come to Moses to beg the Israelites to leave Egypt.
    • Throughout the plagues, Moses did what the Lord told him to do, while Pharaoh did the opposite, just as God had foretold, the implication is that the Lord is sovereign in human affairs.

    Exo 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning, as he is going out to the water. Stand on the bank of the Nile to meet him, and take in your hand the staff that turned into a serpent.

      He goeth out unto the water – The Nile was worshipped under various names and symbols; at Memphis especially, as Hapi, i. e. Apis, the sacred bull, or living representation of Osiris, of whom the river was regarded as the embodiment or manifestation.

      • If, as is probable, the king went to offer his devotions, the miracle would have special force and suitableness.
      • It was also the season of the yearly overflowing, about the middle of June; and the daily rise of the water was accurately recorded, under the personal superintendence of the king.
      • In early inscriptions the Nilometer is the symbol of stability and providential care.

    Exo 7:16 And you shall say to him, ‘The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, sent me to you, saying, “Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness.” But so far, you have not obeyed.
    Exo 7:17 Thus says the LORD, “By this you shall know that I am the LORD: behold, with the staff that is in my hand I will strike the water that is in the Nile, and it shall turn into blood.

    • Nile = Exodus 12:12 says the tenth plague is a “judgment on all the gods of Egypt.” It completed what the first nine began, for they were also affronts to the Egyptian nature gods. The first plague judges Ha’pi, the Nile-god who supposedly saw to it that the river flooded at the right time, just enough to provide crucial water and renewed soil, and not so much that villages were inundated. The judgment on the Nile may have been an upset of the flood cycle to prove that Hapi was no real god.

    Exo 7:18 The fish in the Nile shall die, and the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will grow weary of drinking water from the Nile.”‘”

    • Shall lothe – The water of the Nile has always been regarded by the Egyptians as a blessing unique to their land. It is the only pure and wholesome water in their country, since the water in wells and cisterns is unwholesome, while rain water seldom falls, and fountains are extremely rare.

    Exo 7:19 And the LORD said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, their canals, and their ponds, and all their pools of water, so that they may become blood, and there shall be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, even in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone.'”

    • Upon their streams: The “streams” mean the natural branches of the Nile in Lower Egypt.
    • The word “rivers” should rather be “canals”
    • The word rendered “ponds” refers either to natural fountains, or more probably to cisterns or tanks found in every town and village.
    • The “pools”, literally “gathering of waters,” were the reservoirs, always large and some of enormous extent, containing sufficient water to irrigate the country in the dry season.

    Exo 7:20 Moses and Aaron did as the LORD commanded. In the sight of Pharaoh and in the sight of his servants he lifted up the staff and struck the water in the Nile, and all the water in the Nile turned into blood.
    Exo 7:21 And the fish in the Nile died, and the Nile stank, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.

    • The fish … The Egyptians subsisted to a great extent on the fish of the Nile. A mortality among the fish was a plague that was much dreaded.

    Exo 7:22 But the magicians of Egypt did the same by their secret arts. So Pharaoh’s heart remained hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the LORD had said.

    Note that the Egyptian magicians could replicate this….but that will end shortly. Shortly the magicians will admit that only God could perform the miracles that will impact Egypt.

    • And the magicians – did so – But if all the water in Egypt was turned into blood by Moses, where did the magicians get the water which they changed into blood?
    • This question is answered in Exo 7:24. The Egyptians dug round about the river for water to drink, and it seems that the water obtained by this means was not bloody like that in the river: on this water therefore the magicians might operate.
    • Again, though a general commission was given to Moses, not only to turn the waters of the river (Nile) into blood, but also those of their streams, rivers, ponds, and pools; yet it seems pretty clear from Exo 7:20 that he did not proceed any further, at least in the first instance; for it is there stated that only the waters of the river were turned into blood.
    • Afterwards the plague doubtless became general. At the commencement therefore of this plague, the magicians might obtain other water to imitate the miracle; and it would not be difficult for them, by juggling tricks or the assistance of a familiar spirit, (for we must not abandon the possibility of this use), to give it a bloody appearance, a fetid smell, and a bad taste. On either of these grounds there is no contradiction in the Mosaic account, though some have been very studious to find one.
    • The plague of the bloody waters may be considered as a display of retributive justice against the Egyptians, for the murderous decree which enacted that all the male children of the Israelites should be drowned in that river, the waters of which, so necessary to their support and life, were now rendered deadly, by being turned into blood. As it is well known that the Nile was a chief object of Egyptian idolatry, and that annually they sacrificed a girl, or as others say, both a boy and a girl, to this river, in gratitude for the benefits received from it.
    • God might have designed this plague as a punishment for such cruelty: and the contempt poured upon this object of their adoration, by turning its waters into blood, and rendering them fetid and corrupt, must have had a direct tendency to correct their idolatrous notions, and lead them to acknowledge the power and authority of the true God.

    Exo 7:23 Pharaoh turned and went into his house, and he did not take even this to heart.

    Pharaoh, demonstrating arrogance and pride. He will be humbled here shortly.

    • neither did he set his heart to this also: had no regard to this miracle of turning the waters into blood, as well as he had none to the rod being turned into a serpent, and devouring the rods of the magicians; he just wasn’t impressed….YET!

    Exo 7:24 And all the Egyptians dug along the Nile for water to drink, for they could not drink the water of the Nile.
    Exo 7:25 Seven full days passed after the LORD had struck the Nile.

    • Review, plague one – the Nile turned to blood; the Egyptians lost their water sources, and their food (fish).
    • Note the irony – the Nile usually brought life from water for crops and food from fish, now the Nile brought death.
    • Seven days – This marks the duration of the plague. The natural discoloration of the Nile water lasts generally much longer, about 20 days. (not sure how we know that 20 day thing).

    Chapter 8

    The Second Plague: Frogs

    Exo 8:1 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD, “Let my people go, that they may serve me.

    • Let my people go – God, gives them notice ……
    • Having been warned, the evil might have been prevented by a timely humiliation and surrendering to God, but of course, not yet.

    Exo 8:2 But if you refuse to let them go, behold, I will plague all your country with frogs.

    • God threatened a plague of frogs for a specific reason.
    • The Egyptian goddess Heqt was always pictured with the head of a frog.
    • Egyptians worshipped the frog as the female goddess Heqt because frogs were common around the Nile, because they reproduced rapidly, and because being amphibians they are part of two worlds, creatures of both land and water.
    • God will show the Egyptians the foolishness of a frog-god!
    • CLARKE: NOTICE WHAT GOD USES HERE…. HE DOESN’T NEED POWERFUL EARTHQUAKES, OR THUNDERBOLTS, OR DYNAMIC POWERFUL ARMIES…. HE HUMBLES THIS NATION WITH GNATS.

    Exo 8:3 The Nile shall swarm with frogs that shall come up into your house and into your bedroom and on your bed and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading bowls.
    Exo 8:4 The frogs shall come up on you and on your people and on all your servants.”‘”
    Exo 8:5 And the LORD said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your staff over the rivers, over the canals and over the pools, and make frogs come up on the land of Egypt!'”
    Exo 8:6 So Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.
    Exo 8:7 But the magicians did the same by their secret arts and made frogs come up on the land of Egypt.

    • So, to review, the magicians were able to reproduce plague one, and plague two.
    • But also note, they were able to reproduce it, but not stop it.
    • The Lord had control of his plagues, he can cause them, then he can stop them.
    • The magicians could not stop the plagues, so they were only making conditions worse.

    Exo 8:8 Then Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron and said, “Plead with the LORD to take away the frogs from me and from my people, and I will let the people go to sacrifice to the LORD.”

    • Entreat the LORD that He may take away the frogs: Pharaoh will not go to the LORD himself, but he will go to Moses as if he were God…..like in verse 7:1 where God told Moses he would be like a God unto Pharaoh
    • This was similar to that of Abraham in Genesis 20:7. Both were called prophets, both prayed for a foreign ruler, and the Lord answered both prayers with relief.
    • The wording of Pharaoh’s request shows that he understood what had happened and what he ought to do.

    Exo 8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “Be pleased to command me when I am to plead for you and for your servants and for your people, that the frogs be cut off from you and your houses and be left only in the Nile.”
    Exo 8:10 And he said, “Tomorrow.” Moses said, “Be it as you say, so that you may know that there is no one like the LORD our God.

    Moses sets out to prove that God is all powerful. Moses even tells pharaoh “when” the Lord will get rid of the frogs. Gives him a “day”

    Exo 8:11 The frogs shall go away from you and your houses and your servants and your people. They shall be left only in the Nile.”

    • Even tells him where the frogs will continue to be. Lots of “signs” to prove who our Lord Almighty is.
    • So the LORD did according to the word of Moses: When Moses prays, God answers – and all the frogs die!
    • The description “the land stank” gives a hint at how nauseating it was.

    Exo 8:12 So Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried to the LORD about the frogs, as he had agreed with Pharaoh.
    Exo 8:13 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses. The frogs died out in the houses, the courtyards, and the fields.
    Exo 8:14 And they gathered them together in heaps, and the land stank.
    Exo 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, he hardened his heart and would not listen to them, as the LORD had said.

    • Notice something different here. This is the first time that it is said that Pharaoh hardened his own heart.
    • He hardened his heart: Even when Pharaoh’s plea was granted, his heart did not change
    • he hardened his heart – yet Pharaoh did just as God said he would.
    • Review of 2nd plague. Frogs. Pharaoh’s land stank with rotting, dead flesh of frogs. In their homes, in their palaces, everywhere.
    • Magicians can also do it, but they can’t stop it. Only God can do that.
    • God started and stopped it at will, even allowing Pharaoh to choose when the plague would stop.


    The Third Plague: Gnats

    Exo 8:16 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your staff and strike the dust of the earth, so that it may become gnats in all the land of Egypt.'”

    • This plague comes unannounced. This time God does not show Pharaoh the mercy of a warning and an invitation to repentance.We must never think God is unfair when He does not show mercy. If someone is totally fair, they would never show mercy.

    Exo 8:17 And they did so. Aaron stretched out his hand with his staff and struck the dust of the earth, and there were gnats on man and beast. All the dust of the earth became gnats in all the land of Egypt.

    • This plague struck at the heart of all Egyptian worship, especially at their priests.
    • The Egyptian priesthood was extremely scrupulous about hygiene and ritual cleansing and an infestation of lice made them unable to worship their gods.
    • ALSO….The plague of lice was also upon every beast. The gods of Egypt would not receive the sacrifice of lice-infested animals, so this stopped their sacrificial system.

    Exo 8:18 The magicians tried by their secret arts to produce gnats, but they could not. So there were gnats on man and beast.

    • If these magicians could use occult powers to change a rod into a snake, to turn water into blood, and to summon frogs, why couldn’t they bring forth lice?
    • Because as great as Satan’s power is, it is limited – and it comes to its limit rather early.

    Exo 8:19 Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of God.” But Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the LORD had said.

    • OK, now it begins. The magicians couldn’t reproduce it and THEY said “This is the finger of God.”
    • The magicians could not create animate life from inanimate dust….only God can do that.
    • This is the finger of God: When the magicians say this to Pharaoh, it shows they know there is a power greater than their own, yet it is a power that they do not honor and serve.
    • Pharaoh’s heart grew hard, and he did not heed them:
    • The hardness of Pharaoh’s heart is shown when he will not even heed the analysis of his own advisers.
    • SUMMARY:
    • IMPACTED THEIR FALSE RELIGIONS,
    • IMPACTED THEIR PREISTS;
    • THE MAGICIANS COULDN’T DO IT;
    • THE MAGICIANS STATED “THIS IS THE FINGER OF GOD”,
    • BUT EVEN THEN, THEY DIDN’T START WORSHIPING JEHOVAH.
    • PHARAOH DIDN’T LISTEN TO HIS OWN PEOPLE
    • AND PHARAOH DIDN’T GIVE IN, JUST AS GOD PREDICTED, SO THIS PROVES GOD TO BE RIGHT, AGAIN.


    The Fourth Plague: Flies

    Exo 8:20 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning and present yourself to Pharaoh, as he goes out to the water, and say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD, “Let my people go, that they may serve me.

    • Let My people go, that they may serve Me: There is no record of a specific reply from Pharaoh to this request, but since the plague came, he obviously did not soften his heart towards the LORD God or Israel.
    • Perhaps the reaction isn’t described because there was no reaction – perhaps he just ignored Moses’ message.

    Exo 8:21 Or else, if you will not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you and your servants and your people, and into your houses. And the houses of the Egyptians shall be filled with swarms of flies, and also the ground on which they stand.
    Exo 8:22 But on that day I will set apart the land of Goshen, where my people dwell, so that no swarms of flies shall be there, that you may know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth.

    • Not only does the Lord cause plagues, but he can provide protection to His people, in the same area as the Egyptians.
    • Sovereign presence and control.

    Exo 8:23 Thus I will put a division between my people and your people. Tomorrow this sign shall happen.”‘”

    Here you go. Now God is proving that he is capable of protecting his people, while punishing others. Within the same area, God choses what and where he will impact.

    Exo 8:24 And the LORD did so. There came great swarms of flies into the house of Pharaoh and into his servants’ houses. Throughout all the land of Egypt the land was ruined by the swarms of flies.

    • The land was corrupted (ruined) because of the swarms of flies: This shows that the point of this plague was probably the same as the plague of lice.
    • The Egyptian gods could not be worshipped amidst this uncleanness.

    Exo 8:25 Then Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.”

    This is the first time Pharaoh has agreed to let them sacrifice to God. But, there will be restrictions.

    • Here, Pharaoh suggests a compromise, allowing Israel a holiday for their God, but demanding they stay within the land of Egypt to worship.
    • This is the natural course of action for politicians but God is no politician. He will strike no bargain with Pharaoh.

    Exo 8:26 But Moses said, “It would not be right to do so, for the offerings we shall sacrifice to the LORD our God are an abomination to the Egyptians. If we sacrifice offerings abominable to the Egyptians before their eyes, will they not stone us?

    • If we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, then will they not stone us? Moses reminds Pharaoh of the social uproar this would cause, and sticks to the original request, refusing to compromise.
    • We see God building character and strength in Moses. Perhaps when he first appeared before Pharaoh he would have been willing to strike this kind of bargain. Now he really knows that God is control, and he doesn’t have to settle for less than the perfect will of God.

    Exo 8:27 We must go three days’ journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to the LORD our God as he tells us.”
    Exo 8:28 So Pharaoh said, “I will let you go to sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness; only you must not go very far away. Plead for me.”

    • Pharaoh’s stipulations in verses 25 to 28 show that he still thought he was in charge and could assert his authority.
    • His “don’t go very far” uses an the kind of negative command that only someone with superior status could command.
    • I will let you go, that you may sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness:
    • This is a clear promise, and one that Pharaoh did not live up to. We cannot tell if Pharaoh deliberately lied to Moses or simply changed his mind once the plague of flies was gone.
    • Many people “turn to God” in a time of calamity, and when things get better, almost immediately turn their hearts back in hardness to God. Pharaoh isn’t an unusual specimen of humanity; he is a rather typical one.
    • HARDENING OF OUR HEARTS. As we continue in sin, God can allow our hearts to harden.
    • Intercede for me: This shows Pharaoh knows exactly who the plagues are coming from, and how they can be stopped (by appealing to the LORD God).

    Exo 8:29 Then Moses said, “Behold, I am going out from you and I will plead with the LORD that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, tomorrow. Only let not Pharaoh cheat again by not letting the people go to sacrifice to the LORD.”

    • and I will entreat the Lord that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh; obviously since God sent them, he only could remove them, and he could do the one as easily as he did the other:
    • but let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more, in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the Lord; as in the earlier plague of frogs, refusing to let them go when it was past; which Moses calls an illusion, a mocking of them, and dealing deceitfully.

    Exo 8:30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the LORD.
    Exo 8:31 And the LORD did as Moses asked, and removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; not one remained.

    • Once again, for the 4th time, God proves that He is the cause of the plague, that He controls the start, and the end. No one but him is in control.

    Exo 8:32 But Pharaoh hardened his heart this time also, and did not let the people go.

    • Once again, Pharaoh hardened his heart, just as God has predicted.
    • Review of 4th plague: Upon Pharaoh, his officials, his people, but NOT on the Hebrew nation!
    • To let the Hebrew nation go that would have been letting a huge workforce go, a huge loss of resources for labor.


    Chapter 9

    The Fifth Plague: Egyptian Livestock Die

    Exo 9:1 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, “Let my people go, that they may serve me.
    Exo 9:2 For if you refuse to let them go and still hold them,

    • Refuse to let them go / holding them = uses a form of the same verb that 4:4 uses where Moses “caught” the snake.
    • Egyptian art sometimes depicts the king as a warrior with one hand grasping a captive by the hair, and in the other hand holding a club ready to strike the captive.

    Exo 9:3 behold, the hand of the LORD will fall with a very severe plague upon your livestock that are in the field, the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herds, and the flocks.

    • Livestock 9:3. The Egyptians worshiped many animals and animal headed deities, including the bull gods Apis and Mnevis, the cow-god Hathor and the ram-god Khnum. Thus Egyptian religion is again rebuked and ridiculed.
    • Notice, this was every type of livestock….beasts of burden, etc. This would impact everything, from family life, to community, to government. There was no equipment back then, no John Deere, just livestock.

    Exo 9:4 But the LORD will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, so that nothing of all that belongs to the people of Israel shall die.”‘”

    • Once again, God shows his power and providence and sovereignty by choosing what will happen to whom….even though they are right next to each other. The cattle of Israel breathed in the same air, drank of the same water, and fed in the same pastures, they had not the pestilence as the cattle of Egypt had; and the word here used signifies a marvelous separation

    Exo 9:5 And the LORD set a time, saying, “Tomorrow the LORD will do this thing in the land.”

    • Once again, total control of the universe, the earth, the stars, etc. Chronos TIME.
    • For the coming of this plague, that it might plainly appear it came from him, and was not owing to any natural cause

    Exo 9:6 And the next day the LORD did this thing. All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one of the livestock of the people of Israel died.

    • You want proof, there ya have it. God says when, God says where, how, and why!

    Exo 9:7 And Pharaoh sent, and behold, not one of the livestock of Israel was dead. But the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go.

    So, this is a little different. Pharaoh checked to see if only Egyptian livestock was dead. But still, he didn’t get the people go.


    The Sixth Plague: Boils

    Exo 9:8 And the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot from the kiln, and let Moses throw them in the air in the sight of Pharaoh.

    IN SIGHT OF PHARAOH.. this was to be done before Pharaoh, that he might be an eyewitness of the miracle, he himself seeing with his own eyes that nothing else were cast up into the air but a few light ashes;
    • and this was to be done towards heaven, to show that the plague or judgment came down from heaven, from the God of heaven, whose wrath was now revealed;
    • and Moses he was to do this; he alone.

    Exo 9:9 It shall become fine dust over all the land of Egypt, and become boils breaking out in sores on man and beast throughout all the land of Egypt.”

    • The Egyptian “boils” were infamous enough that the boils were included as a “disobedience curse” in Deuteronomy 28:27.

    Exo 9:10 So they took soot from the kiln and stood before Pharaoh. And Moses threw it in the air, and it became boils breaking out in sores on man and beast.
    Exo 9:11 And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for the boils came upon the magicians and upon all the Egyptians.

    • for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians; but not upon Moses and Aaron, nor upon any of the Israelites,
    • Moses and Aaron stood before Pharaoh but the magicians could not stand before Moses.
    • This turnabout of wording enhances the status of Moses by putting him in the position oh “holding court.”

    Exo 9:12 But the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he did not listen to them, as the LORD had spoken to Moses.

    Exodus 4:21 And the LORD said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the miracles that I have put in your power. But I will harden his heart, so that he will not let the people go.

    • This is the first instance in which the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart. Earlier notices have mentioned his hearts condition or mentioned that Pharaoh did the hardening.
    • TO REVIEW: These boils impacted man and beast.
    • MAGICIANS HAVE DISAPPEARED
    • BELIEF IN FALSE GODS BEING DESTROYED, SYSTEMATICALLY, ONE AT A TIME


    The Seventh Plague: Hail

    Exo 9:13 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning and present yourself before Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, “Let my people go, that they may serve me.
    Exo 9:14 For this time I will send all my plagues on you yourself, and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is none like me in all the earth.

    • Know that there is none like me in all the earth…. Well, if you didn’t believe me by now….you are going to get another lesson….etc.
    none like me in all the earth“. See, these were powerful, these picked and chose their targets, nothing or no-one could do what our Lord is doing here.

    Exo 9:15 For by now I could have put out my hand and struck you and your people with pestilence, and you would have been cut off from the earth.
    Exo 9:16 But for this purpose I have raised you up, to show you my power, so that my name may be proclaimed in all the earth.

    And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up
    • BARNES: God kept Pharaoh “standing”, i. E. Permitted him to live and hold out until His own purpose was accomplished.
    • BULLINGER: made thee to stand, i.e.”preserved thee “through all the plagues and till the end.
    • In other words…. God has preserved this king, and his people, to show the world, who god is, and that god’s name will be shown across the earth.
    • And, isn’t that exactly what is happening now, in our world today? We are reading about this pharaoh, and pharaohs “legacy” if you will, that god’s word is still coming true….

    Exo 9:17 You are still exalting yourself against my people and will not let them go.

    • Throughout the conflict with Pharaoh, the Lord was demonstrating his right to rule while calling for allegiance and obedience.

    Exo 9:18 Behold, about this time tomorrow I will cause very heavy hail to fall, such as never has been in Egypt from the day it was founded until now.

    such that has never been in Egypt“: That is quite a statement. Egypt is one of the oldest nations we have recorded.

    Exo 9:19 Now therefore send, get your livestock and all that you have in the field into safe shelter, for every man and beast that is in the field and is not brought home will die when the hail falls on them.

    • Previous plagues did not include direct commands about how to avoid damage.

    Exo 9:20 Then whoever feared the word of the LORD among the servants of Pharaoh hurried his slaves and his livestock into the houses,
    Exo 9:21 but whoever did not pay attention to the word of the LORD left his slaves and his livestock in the field.
    Exo 9:22 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, so that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, on man and beast and every plant of the field, in the land of Egypt.”
    Exo 9:23 Then Moses stretched out his staff toward heaven, and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and fire ran down to the earth. And the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt.
    Exo 9:24 There was hail and fire flashing continually in the midst of the hail, very heavy hail, such as had never been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.

    So before, we talked about lice, gnats, flies…the little stuff. But, god can also control the forces of nature, the powers of thunder, lightning, hail! So, he’s got it all covered, little to biggest of all.

    Exo 9:25 The hail struck down everything that was in the field in all the land of Egypt, both man and beast. And the hail struck down every plant of the field and broke every tree of the field.
    Exo 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the people of Israel were, was there no hail.

    There you go….the Lord’s provisions for his people!

    Exo 9:27 Then Pharaoh sent and called Moses and Aaron and said to them, “This time I have sinned; the LORD is in the right, and I and my people are in the wrong.
    Exo 9:28 Plead with the LORD, for there has been enough of God’s thunder and hail. I will let you go, and you shall stay no longer.”
    Exo 9:29 Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, I will stretch out my hands to the LORD. The thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth is the LORD’s.

    “As soon as I am gone out of the city”…. God is allowing Moses to speak independently, for God’s overall purposes, to show the Egyptians that there is no God like the Hebrew God!
    • Spread abroad my hands – was a gesture associated with prayer and a sign of need and dependence.
    • THE EARTH IS THE LORD’S….THIS IS A NEW STATEMENT… The seventh plague added significance to the Lord’s name by showing his ownership of and sovereignty over the entire earth, not just a portion as with many pagan gods.

    Exo 9:30 But as for you and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear the LORD God.”

    • Moses pointed pharaoh to the source of Egypt’s problems…
    • they had not feared him yet; the confession of sin that he made did not come from the true fear of God, but from a dread of punishment

    Exo 9:31 (The flax and the barley were struck down, for the barley was in the ear and the flax was in bud.
    Exo 9:32 But the wheat and the emmer were not struck down, for they are late in coming up.)
    Exo 9:33 So Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh and stretched out his hands to the LORD, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain no longer poured upon the earth.
    Exo 9:34 But when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunder had ceased, he sinned yet again and hardened his heart, he and his servants.

    “He and his servants”…. this is new….

    Exo 9:35 So the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people of Israel go, just as the LORD had spoken through Moses.

    • as the Lord had spoken by Moses; that so his heart would be hardened until the signs and wonders were multiplied upon him, God designed to perform, AGAIN, AS GOD SAID IN Exo 4:21.


    Chapter 10

    The Eighth Plague: Locusts

    Exo 10:1 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I may show these signs of mine among them,

    • 9:34, and 35, and 10:1….. These verses contain three references to the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart following the plague of hail.
    • 1. The first reference names Pharaoh as the agent (he…hardened his heart), and it says that his officials did the same.
    • 2. The second names no agent and simply describes the condition (Pharaoh’s heart was hard).
    • 3. The third names the Lord as the agent (I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials).
    • The first (9:34) and the third (10:1) use the same verb. So it seems that both Pharaoh and the Lord are responsible for the condition.

    Exo 10:2 and that you may tell in the hearing of your son and of your grandson how I have dealt harshly with the Egyptians and what signs I have done among them, that you may know that I am the LORD.”

    • This is new. This prologue to the plague of locusts introduces the topic of provisions for remembering and recording what the Lord has done for them. THIS WILL BECOME A MAJOR THEME, TO REMEMBER WHAT THE LORD HAS DONE.
    • The hardening of the Egyptian hearts was the occasion for miraculous signs that the Israelites should recount to succeeding generations so they would know who the Lord is.

    Exo 10:3 So Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh and said to him, “Thus says the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, that they may serve me.
    Exo 10:4 For if you refuse to let my people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your country,
    Exo 10:5 and they shall cover the face of the land, so that no one can see the land. And they shall eat what is left to you after the hail, and they shall eat every tree of yours that grows in the field,
    Exo 10:6 and they shall fill your houses and the houses of all your servants and of all the Egyptians, as neither your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen, from the day they came on earth to this day.'” Then he turned and went out from Pharaoh.
    Exo 10:7 Then Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long shall this man be a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God. Do you not yet understand that Egypt is ruined?”

    • This is the first time Moses and Aaron deliver the plague announcement and then leave, showing the Lord’s control of events and revealing to readers what will happen.
    • Pharaoh’s officials blamed Moses for the problem. Also, notice that they correctly assumed that more trouble was coming.

    Exo 10:8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh. And he said to them, “Go, serve the LORD your God. But which ones are to go?”
    Exo 10:9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old. We will go with our sons and daughters and with our flocks and herds, for we must hold a feast to the LORD.”
    Exo 10:10 But he said to them, “The LORD be with you, if ever I let you and your little ones go! Look, you have some evil purpose in mind.

    • For evil is before you / look out – your headed for trouble. Various commentaries have different views on this:
    • Could be Pharaoh warning Moses that he was going to be in trouble from Pharaoh
    • Or it could be that the current discussion was going to bring much trouble to Egypt

    Exo 10:11 No! Go, the men among you, and serve the LORD, for that is what you are asking.” And they were driven out from Pharaoh’s presence.

    You can’t make deals with God. God is God, not someone who makes deals. You do it HIS way, or pay the price. This is the 8th plague, he is proving that He is long-suffering, but simultaneously proving that only he can do those types of miracles.

    Exo 10:12 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, so that they may come upon the land of Egypt and eat every plant in the land, all that the hail has left.”
    Exo 10:13 So Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day and all that night. When it was morning, the east wind had brought the locusts.
    Exo 10:14 The locusts came up over all the land of Egypt and settled on the whole country of Egypt, such a dense swarm of locusts as had never been before, nor ever will be again.
    Exo 10:15 They covered the face of the whole land, so that the land was darkened, and they ate all the plants in the land and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Not a green thing remained, neither tree nor plant of the field, through all the land of Egypt.
    Exo 10:16 Then Pharaoh hastily called Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you.

    Haste…. This is new. Pharaoh is in a hurry here. Panic by the King. Monarchs like to show an image of serenity and control. Pharaoh’s hurry to call Moses and Aaron back, his confession, and his request for relief from the plague show its impact on him.
    • GILL: This confession did not arise from a true sense of sin, as committed against God, but from the fright he was in, and fear of punishment continued upon him, to the utter ruin of him and his people.
    • DAVID GUZIK COMMENTARY: I have sinned against the LORD your God and against you: Pharaoh did the same thing in Exo 9:27-28. He said the words of repentance but did not follow through with the actions. His heart was only hardened more after God relented and showed mercy.

    Exo 10:17 Now therefore, forgive my sin, please, only this once, and plead with the LORD your God only to remove this death from me.”
    Exo 10:18 So he went out from Pharaoh and pleaded with the LORD.
    Exo 10:19 And the LORD turned the wind into a very strong west wind, which lifted the locusts and drove them into the Red Sea. Not a single locust was left in all the country of Egypt.
    Exo 10:20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go.

    It has been written that the reason that “God” hardened his heart, was so that the nation would see God’s awesome, powerful, miraculous works. It has also been written that God only hardened a heart that was already hard. The thought being that God didn’t harden a soft heart, he hardened an evil, already hard heart.


    The Ninth Plague: Darkness

    Exo 10:21 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness to be felt.”

    • An insult to the sun-god Ra (or Re), one of Egypt’s chief deities.
    • Pharaoh was believed to be the son of Ra (Re)

    Exo 10:22 So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was pitch darkness in all the land of Egypt three days.

    Darkness which may be felt: not a normal darkness, but dark to the core.
    David Guzik commentary: Seemingly, God did not even allow artificial light sources to work. The Egyptians would attempt to use candles and lamps but were unable to produce light.

    Exo 10:23 They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, but all the people of Israel had light where they lived.

    • Now God controlled where light was, and wasn’t. In the same geographical area….
    • not being able to find the way to the door,
    • not able to do any business
    • don’t you think that the Egyptians were quite amazed and confounded

    Exo 10:24 Then Pharaoh called Moses and said, “Go, serve the LORD; your little ones also may go with you; only let your flocks and your herds remain behind.”

    • Pharaoh’s restriction of the movement of the flocks and herds of the Israelites showed that he was still unwilling to submit to the Lord.

    Exo 10:25 But Moses said, “You must also let us have sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God.
    Exo 10:26 Our livestock also must go with us; not a hoof shall be left behind, for we must take of them to serve the LORD our God, and we do not know with what we must serve the LORD until we arrive there.”
    Exo 10:27 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go.
    Exo 10:28 Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me; take care never to see my face again, for on the day you see my face you shall die.”

    • Pharaoh finally had enough. He threatened to kill Moses if he saw him again. He is still not giving in, he thinks he is still in control.

    Exo 10:29 Moses said, “As you say! I will not see your face again.”



    Chapter 11

    A Final Plague Threatened

    Exo 11:1 The LORD said to Moses, “Yet one plague more I will bring upon Pharaoh and upon Egypt. Afterward he will let you go from here. When he lets you go, he will drive you away completely.

    The Lord already knows when, where, and how about everything. There are no surprises to God.

    “Yet one plague more I will bring upon Pharaoh and upon Egypt.;
    o upon him and all his subjects
    afterward he will let you go;
    o out of Egypt readily, at once, and not attempt to stop or slow you down.
    when he shall let you go;
    o declare his will, give leave and orders for it:
    he will drive you away completely;
    o absolutely, entirely, without any exception or limitation, them, their wives, their children, their flocks and herds, and whatsoever belonged to them,
    o without any restraint in any respect, and without any condition of return, but will be unlimited, and unconditional.

    Exo 11:2 Speak now in the hearing of the people, that they ask, every man of his neighbor and every woman of her neighbor, for silver and gold jewelry.”

    o to ornament themselves with at the feast they were going to keep
    o made of gold and silver, such as were fit and proper to be used at sacrifices and feasts, for the doing of which the divine authority was sufficient;
    o that they might be paid for their hard service they had been made to serve for so many years, without having a proper reward for it

    Exo 11:3 And the LORD gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh’s servants and in the sight of the people.

    God was touching the heart of the Egyptian people. No one can hide from God.

    o And the Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians,….
    o So that they freely and willingly give them the things they asked of them
    o And so that the Egyptians don’t mess with them at the last moment

    moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt;

    o his name was famous throughout the whole land, because of the signs and wonders, and miracles wrought by him;
    o they took him to be a very extraordinary person, as he was, and had him in great esteem, because at his requests the plagues were removed from them,
    o AND, once again, God’s prophecy is exactly correct. He stated that Moses would become like a god to them.

    in the sight of Pharaoh’s servants;
    o his ministers, his courtiers, and his counsellors: and in the sight of the people; the common people.

    Exo 11:4 So Moses said, “Thus says the LORD: ‘About midnight I will go out in the midst of Egypt,
    Exo 11:5 and every firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the slave girl who is behind the handmill, and all the firstborn of the cattle.

    Two points are to be noticed:
    1. The extent of the death plague: the whole land suffers in the persons of its firstborn, not merely for the guilt of the Pharaoh, but for the actual participation of the people in the crime of infanticide as mentioned in Exo 1:22.
    Exo 1:22 Then Pharaoh commanded all his people, “Every son that is born to the Hebrews you shall cast into the Nile, but you shall let every daughter live.”
    2. But God does impose constraint, or limits: Pharaoh’s command had been to slay ALL the male children of the Israelites, but only one child in each Egyptian family was to die.

    Firstborn of beasts – This plague has a special force in reference to the worship of beasts, which was universal in Egypt; each district having its own sacred animal, adored as a manifestation or representative of the local deity.

    Exo 11:6 There shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there has never been, nor ever will be again.

    And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt,…. Of parents for the loss of their firstborn sons, their heirs, children for the loss of their family members;

    such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more; this is quite a statement….the worse crying ever… or ever will be….

    Exo 11:7 But not a dog shall growl against any of the people of Israel, either man or beast, that you may know that the LORD makes a distinction between Egypt and Israel.’

    AGAIN, God protecting His people. Total control of the heavens, and the universe, everything.

    But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast,…. no hurt should be done to man or beast among the Hebrew,

    that you may know that the LORD makes a distinction between Egypt and Israel; by preserving them and theirs, when the firstborn of Egypt were destroyed,

    Exo 11:8 And all these your servants shall come down to me and bow down to me, saying, ‘Get out, you and all the people who follow you.’ And after that I will go out.” And he went out from Pharaoh in hot anger.

    shall come down unto me; from Pharaoh’s palace, to the place where Moses had dwelt during the time he had been in Egypt
    and bow down to me; humbly, and earnestly begging him to leave. Also, bow down would indicate reverence, thus once again, God’s prophecy that Moses would be like a god to the Egyptians came true.
    saying, ‘Get out, you and all the people who follow you: all of them, would be desired to depart, and not a man remain behind: this was fulfilled, Exo 12:31,
    and after that I will go out; out of the land of Egypt, Moses, and all the children of Israel:
    and he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger;

    • Holy and righteous indignation for the repeated falsehood, and the way the king didn’t feel any regret.
    • and this strong emotion was stirred in Moses, for the dishonor done to God

    Exo 11:9 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”

    • If Pharaoh had yielded at the first, or even after two or three miracles, God’s greatness and power would not have been shown forth very remarkably.
    • Neither the Egyptians nor the neighboring nations would have been much impressed.
    • If Pharaoh had yielded at the first, The circumstances would soon have been forgotten.
    • As it was, the hardness of Pharaoh’s heart, while it delayed the departure of the Israelites for a year, and so added to their sufferings, was of advantage to them in various ways:—
      • It gave them time to organize themselves, and make all necessary preparations for a sudden departure.
      • It deeply impressed the Egyptians and led them to abstain from all interference with the Israelites for above three centuries.
      • It impressed the neighboring nations also to some extent, and prevented them from offering opposition to the Israelites.

    Exo 11:10 Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, and the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go out of his land.



    Chapter 12

    The Passover

    Exo 12:1 The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt,
    Exo 12:2 “This month shall be for you the beginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year for you.

    So the first month of the Hebrew calendar will now be “Abib” (March April. See Chapter 13:4)

    Exo 12:3 Tell all the congregation of Israel that on the tenth day of this month every man shall take a lamb according to their fathers’ houses, a lamb for a household.
    Exo 12:4 And if the household is too small for a lamb, then he and his nearest neighbor shall take according to the number of persons; according to what each can eat you shall make your count for the lamb.
    Exo 12:5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male a year old. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats,
    Exo 12:6 and you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month, when the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill their lambs at twilight.

      Verse 3 said take the lamb on the tenth. Now this verse 6 said on the 14th kill it…..what’s that all about, why a 4 day wait?

    • CSB. To observe it, to make sure it is perfect, without blemish.
    • CSB. Also, to draw attention to what was ahead.

    Exo 12:7 “Then they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the houses in which they eat it.
    Exo 12:8 They shall eat the flesh that night, roasted on the fire; with unleavened bread and bitter herbs they shall eat it.

    roasted on a fire represents “quick”. Someone who could stay longer would boil food in water.

    Exo 12:9 Do not eat any of it raw or boiled in water, but roasted, its head with its legs and its inner parts.
    Exo 12:10 And you shall let none of it remain until the morning; anything that remains until the morning you shall burn.
    Exo 12:11 In this manner you shall eat it: with your belt fastened, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. And you shall eat it in haste. It is the LORD’s Passover.
    Exo 12:12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt that night, and I will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD.
    Exo 12:13 The blood shall be a sign for you, on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you to destroy you, when I strike the land of Egypt.
    Exo 12:14 “This day shall be for you a memorial day, and you shall keep it as a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations, as a statute forever, you shall keep it as a feast.

    • CSB. The declarations it is the LORD’s Passover and I am the LORD reinforce the truth that what was happening centered on God’s identity and his self-revealing actions.
    • In this instance he exercised his ability and right to execute judgments against all of the gods in Egypt.

    Exo 12:15 Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall remove leaven out of your houses, for if anyone eats what is leavened, from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel.
    Exo 12:16 On the first day you shall hold a holy assembly, and on the seventh day a holy assembly. No work shall be done on those days. But what everyone needs to eat, that alone may be prepared by you.
    Exo 12:17 And you shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this very day I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you shall observe this day, throughout your generations, as a statute forever.
    Exo 12:18 In the first month, from the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread until the twenty-first day of the month at evening.
    Exo 12:19 For seven days no leaven is to be found in your houses. If anyone eats what is leavened, that person will be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a sojourner or a native of the land.
    Exo 12:20 You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your dwelling places you shall eat unleavened bread.”

    • CSB. Eating unleavened bread would remind the Israelites of their rapid departure from Egypt that did not allow time for a leavening agent to make the bread rise.
    • CSB. Those who ate leavened bread showed disdain for what the Lord had done in founding Israel as a nation and were subject to either banishment or the death penalty.

    Exo 12:21 Then Moses called all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go and select lambs for yourselves according to your clans, and kill the Passover lamb.
    Exo 12:22 Take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and touch the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. None of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning.

    CSB. Hyssop. Used in cleaning rituals (Leviticus, Numbers; Psalms; Hebrews).

    Exo 12:23 For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians, and when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses to strike you.
    Exo 12:24 You shall observe this rite as a statute for you and for your sons forever.
    Exo 12:25 And when you come to the land that the LORD will give you, as he has promised, you shall keep this service.
    Exo 12:26 And when your children say to you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’
    Exo 12:27 you shall say, ‘It is the sacrifice of the LORD’s Passover, for he passed over the houses of the people of Israel in Egypt, when he struck the Egyptians but spared our houses.'” And the people bowed their heads and worshiped.
    Exo 12:28 Then the people of Israel went and did so; as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.

    The Lord was telling them how to worship Him, how everything in their lives would remind them that He is active and involved in their lives, and how He is LORD of all.

    The Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn

    Exo 12:29 At midnight the LORD struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the livestock.

    • Once again, God even showed mercy with this curse. Years ago, Pharaoh had killed “all” male born children, whereas here, God only slays the firstborn.
    • From the first born of Pharaoh, to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon…… bible showing both extremes, including all people in between.

    Exo 12:30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians. And there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where someone was not dead.
    Exo 12:31 Then he summoned Moses and Aaron by night and said, “Up, go out from among my people, both you and the people of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as you have said.
    Exo 12:32 Take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone, and bless me also!” Was Pharaoh worried about future plagues and was asking for no more?

    The Pharaoh had told Moses that the next time he saw him that Moses would die, but that didn’t happen.

    When the Pharaoh said “and bless me also“…. things could have gone much better for the Egyptians. Genesis 12:3 states that God will bless those that bless Israel. There are a lot of different commentary remarks on verse 32, is it possible that Pharaoh realized how powerful God really is, and now wanted to get on God’s good side? Or was it that he was so grieved by the loss of his nation’s first born children that he wanted to make good? Or was he trying to make sure that Egypt was never given any more plagues for the life of the nation?

    The Exodus

    Exo 12:33 The Egyptians were urgent with the people to send them out of the land in haste. For they said, “We shall all be dead.”

    “We shall all be dead.” they expected that they themselves, and the rest of their families, would be struck with death next; and this they feared would be the case in a very little time, if they did not depart.

    Exo 12:34 So the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading bowls being bound up in their cloaks on their shoulders.
    Exo 12:35 The people of Israel had also done as Moses told them, for they had asked the Egyptians for silver and gold jewelry and for clothing.

    King James uses “borrowed” not “asked”.
    borrowed = shaw-al’, shaw-ale’

    A primitive root; to inquire; by implication to request; by extension to demand: – ask (counsel, on), beg, borrow, lay to charge, consult, demand, desire, X earnestly, enquire, + greet, obtain leave, lend, pray, request, require, + salute, X straitly, X surely, wish.

    Exo 12:36 And the LORD had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. Thus they plundered the Egyptians.

    King James uses “spoiled” here, not plundered.
    spoiled = nâtsal

    naw-tsal’

    A primitive root; to snatch away, whether in a good or a bad sense: – X at all, defend, deliver (self), escape, X without fail, part, pluck, preserve, recover, rescue, rid, save, spoil, strip, X surely, take (out).

      Some translations say “and they spoiled the Egyptians”;

    • stripped them of their substance and riches, of their most valuable things; in doing which they were not criminal, since they did it by the direction and authority of God, who has a right to dispose of all the things in the world; and to take of them from one, and give to another, as he pleases;
    • nor was any injustice done to the Egyptians, who owed all this, and perhaps abundantly more, to the Israelites, for the labour and service they had served them in for many years;
    • besides, they were the sworn enemies of Israel, and the Lord had now put himself at the head of the armies of Israel, and was contending with them, and in time of war, is lawful to spoil, plunder, and distress an enemy, in whatsoever way it can be done.
    • And thus the promise made to Abraham, that his posterity should come out with great substance, was fulfilled, Gen 15:14.

    Exo 12:37 And the people of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children.

    And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth:
    • Rameses was a place in Goshen.
    • The distance between these two places was not so great; for Succoth from Rameses it is computed was eight miles only.

    were about six hundred thousand on foot, that were men, besides children:
    • Some scholars suggest to include the elderly, women and children would be anywhere from 250,000; others say 380,000 , while others say 600,000, but then other theologians, like the writers of our CSB BIBLE we use here at LBC, the way they compute the numbers, all say over 2 million people.

    Exo 12:38 A mixed multitude also went up with them, and very much livestock, both flocks and herds.

    CSB: Mixed multitude: may have included other laborers who saw an opportunity to escape from Egyptian servitude, but who had not come to faith in the Lord.
    • JOHN DILL: And a mixed multitude went up also with them,…. Some of these were Egyptians, and some of other nations that had resided in Egypt, and who, on various accounts, might choose to go along with the children of Israel; some through intermarriages with them.
    • JOHN DILL: and flocks and herds, even very much cattle; the greatest part of which must be supposed to belong to the children of Israel, whose cattle were not destroyed when those of the Egyptians were;
    o and the rest might be the cattle of such who feared and regarded the word of God, and took their cattle into their houses at the time of the plague of hail, whereby they were preserved.

    Exo 12:39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough that they had brought out of Egypt, for it was not leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt and could not wait, nor had they prepared any provisions for themselves.

      Yeast, unleavened cakes: In the New Testament, leaven is normally a “bad” thing:

    • Luke 12:1 In the meantime, when so many thousands of the people had gathered together that they were trampling one another, he began to say to his disciples first, “Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.
    • 1 Corinthians 5:8 Let us therefore celebrate the festival, not with the old leaven, the leaven of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

    Exo 12:40 The time that the people of Israel lived in Egypt was 430 years.
    Exo 12:41 At the end of 430 years, on that very day, all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.

    430 years, on that very day.
    King James uses the selfsame day: i.e. the fifteenth day of the seventh month. The years of the solar cycle show that it was the day that Abraham left “Ur of the Chaldees”.

    Exo 12:42 It was a night of watching by the LORD, to bring them out of the land of Egypt; so this same night is a night of watching kept to the LORD by all the people of Israel throughout their generations.

    Institution of the Passover

    Exo 12:43 And the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the statute of the Passover: no foreigner shall eat of it,
    Exo 12:44 but every slave that is bought for money may eat of it after you have circumcised him.
    Exo 12:45 No foreigner or hired worker may eat of it.
    Exo 12:46 It shall be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the flesh outside the house, and you shall not break any of its bones.
    Exo 12:47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.
    Exo 12:48 If a stranger shall sojourn with you and would keep the Passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised. Then he may come near and keep it; he shall be as a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat of it.
    Exo 12:49 There shall be one law for the native and for the stranger who sojourns among you.”
    Exo 12:50 All the people of Israel did just as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron.
    Exo 12:51 And on that very day the LORD brought the people of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts.



    Chapter 13

    CSB: Now the Lord brings to a glorious conclusion the deliverance of His people. This portion of the story peaks with God’s judgments on Egypt and gives us a first glimpse of Israel’s response to God’s leadership through Moses.

    CSB introduction: In addition to have the Passover Feast, and the festival of Unleavened bread, this Israelites would memorialize what the Lord had done for them when they set apart, or consecrated, the firstborn males of both humans and animals.
    In future years the Israelites were to reenact certain events of the exodus. They would eat a meal like their last one in Egypt, and they would eat unleavened bread, as they had done in the early days of their journey out of Egypt.
    Because the Lord had distinguished and redeemed Israel, his firstborn, they would redeem their firstborn sons.
    All these people, and animals, and events were built into Israelite life as reminders of the Lord’s identity. He was known for his actions, and he gave meaning to the lives of his people.

    CSB: more on the “FIRSTBORN” =
    • Inheritance laws usually gave the firstborn son a portion twice as big as the other sons. (Deut 21:15-17)
    • The firstborn son was prized because he embodied the father’s strength. (Micah 6:7 & Zech 12:10)
    • “Bekor” (word for firstborn) could also indicate status since Israel was God’s firstborn son among the nations. Ex 4:22
    o Exodus 4:22 Then you shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the LORD, Israel is my firstborn son,
    • God judged the firstborn in Egypt for Egypt’s mistreatment of his firstborn, whether man or beast.
    o Num 3:13 for all the firstborn are mine. On the day that I struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, I consecrated for my own all the firstborn in Israel, both of man and of beast. They shall be mine: I am the LORD.”
    • The firstborn of the flock and herd became sacrifices.
    o Lev 27:26 “But a firstborn of animals, which as a firstborn belongs to the LORD, no man may dedicate; whether ox or sheep, it is the LORD’s.
    • Later, the Davidic king was God’s firstborn among earth’s kings.
    o Psa 89:27 And I will make him the firstborn, the highest of the kings of the earth.

    Consecration of the Firstborn

    Exo 13:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
    Exo 13:2 Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine.

    CSB: Later, the Lord explained that he had consecrated every firstborn male of Israel as belonging to him. Remember, this means to “set apart” for religious purposes.
    o Num 3:13 for all the firstborn are mine. On the day that I struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, I consecrated for my own all the firstborn in Israel, both of man and of beast. They shall be mine: I am the LORD.”

    Sanctify
    qâdash

    kaw-dash’

    A primitive root; to be (causatively make, pronounce or observe as) clean (ceremonially or morally): – appoint, bid, consecrate, dedicate, defile, hallow, (be, keep) holy (-er, place), keep, prepare, proclaim, purify, sanctify (-ied one, self), X wholly.

    The Feast of Unleavened Bread

    Exo 13:3 And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten.
    Exo 13:4 This day came ye out in the month Abib.

    • Abib = April

    Exo 13:5 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month.

    • All the “ites” (Canaanites; Hittites, Amorites; Hivites; Jebusites), the Israelites would eventually drive all these people out of Canaan, the Promised Land given to Israelites by God. NOTE: DEUT 7:1 indicates that that the Lord drove them out, not the power of Israel, but God’s power:
    o Deu 7:1 “When the LORD your God brings you into the land that you are entering to take possession of it, and clears away many nations before you, the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, seven nations more numerous and mightier than you,
    o ALBERT BARNES: The first word “Canaanite” is generic, and includes all the Hamite races of Palestine. (Generation that descended from Ham, son of Noah.)
    o Who remembers what happened between Noah, Ham, and Canaan? Genesis 9:20-25
     First…. Ham was Noah’s youngest son.
     Canaan was Ham’s youngest son.
     So, Noah was of course Canaan’s grandfather.
     Now, Noah planted vineyard, got drunk, passed out in his tent.
     Ham, Noah’s youngest son, went in and saw Noah naked.
     Ham told his two brothers, Shem and Japheth, so those two took a garment, they went in to the tent “backwards” to cover Noah up, so they wouldn’t see Noah naked.
     When Noah woke up, Noah cursed Canaan….but remember, it was Canaan’s father HAM, who had started this whole mess.
     Why, the bible isn’t clear. It is said that the words Son and GrandSon can be used the same way, so maybe it was Canaan who started the mess. The bible isn’t clear on this.
     But anyway, Canaanites, were bad people, because they were cursed, and they were descendants of Canaan, who was the son of Ham, who was the youngest son of Noah.

    Exo 13:6 Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD.

     seventh day there shall be a feast to the LORD = a holy gathering, and no work shall be done, except preparing the food for the gathering.

    Exo 13:7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters.

     Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days,…. From the evening of the fourteenth day, to the evening of the twenty first, not only they were to abstain from leaven, but that they were obliged to eat unleavened bread
     OK, WHERE DOES THE 14TH to 21st come from? Rewind one chapter, to Exodus 12:18.
    o Exo 12:18, In the first month, from the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread until the twenty-first day of the month at evening. (First month, meaning “Abib”, meaning “April”.

    Exo 13:8 And thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt.

     saying, this is done because of that which the Lord did unto me, when I came forth out of Egypt: = that is, this unleavened bread is eaten because of the quick and speedy deliverance of Israel out of Egypt, so that they had not time to leaven their dough.

    Exo 13:9 And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the LORD’S law may be in thy mouth: for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt.

    o CSB: Israelites would accept, meditate on, and do what the Lord prescribed.
    o Involved teaching children
    o Israel shall know about, and talk about, to remind themselves and one another.
    o (pg 72) HAND..FOREHEAD..vs 13:9.
    o God intended this as a figure of speech to show how vividly the Feast of Unleavened Bread should remind Israel of God’s grace and Law.
    o However, later Jews have taken this and similar verses literally.
    o They write scriptures from Exodus; and Deuteronomy and put them in small leather boxes (phylacteries) and put them on their foreheads and left arm before beginning his morning prayers.
    o (page 72) Law..vs 13:9
    o “Law” is not only the 10 commandments and other detailed regulations in the Pentateuch.
    o Law (Hebrew: torah) also means teaching, and it encompasses all that God has revealed about Himself and done for his people.
    o The Jews call all of the Pentateuch (Genesis through Deuteronomy) the Torah.
    o In the New Testament, we sometimes even find the whole Hebrew Bible called the Law
    o The command to have the Law on your lips comes in the context of an instruction to tell one’s children how God liberated Israel from Egypt.
    o So to have the Law on one’s lips means not primarily talking about the Lord’s commands, but what He had revealed about Himself and done for His people.

    Exo 13:10 Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in his season from year to year.

    o This verse, has been misinterpreted, way back in the early OLD Testament days. It was misinterpreted in the “Targum of Jonathan”.
    o Jonathan ben Uzziel, a respected scholar of the Law, a popular Rabbi, wrote a TARGUM. Now, a TARGUM is an explanation and paraphrase and expansion, of the Jewish Law. Jonathan explained that this scripture focused on keeping the statute of the phylacteries, not keeping the festival of Unleavened bread.
    o So, the Targum of Jonathan, is one of the reasons why you see Jewish people still today wearing the phylacteries (strapped to left arm, and strapped to forehead).

    Exo 13:11 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee,

    o Swore to you and your fathers = this is a good reminder that the Lord keeps his promises…. Which brings us Joy, Hope, Peace, Comfort….because we know His plan, His purpose, for us!

    Exo 13:12 That thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the matrix, and every firstling that cometh of a beast which thou hast; the males shall be the LORD’S.

    Set apart = uses a verb that refers elsewhere to transferring property.
    Now notice… the next verse, verse 13, starts talking about “unclean animals”…. Which means that this verse, verse 12, is only talking about “clean” animals are set apart for food and sacrifice….. such as firstlings of cows, sheeps, goats…etc.

    Exo 13:13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all the firstborn of man among thy children shalt thou redeem.

    • CSB: Donkey = donkeys could not be sacrificed, so the firstborn of a donkey should be redeemed for normal use by giving a sheep or goat in it’s place.
    • CSB: The Lord’s requirement of redemption for a human firstborn contrasted with the practices of pagan worshipers who killed children in rituals designed to curry favor with their gods.

    Exo 13:14 And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying, What is this? that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage:

    o Commentaries focus here, on verse 14, when mentioning “strong hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt”… it is direct relation to the way the Lord killed the firstborn in Egypt, so the Hebrew nation is setting apart, consecrating, redeeming, their firstborn to God.

    Exo 13:15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the matrix, being males; but all the firstborn of my children I redeem.

    o So….”but all the firstborn of my sons I redeem”…. THERE IS A TON MORE TO THIS THAN JUST SETTING THE CHILD APART TO GOD!
    o Numbers 18:16 (ESV) 16 And their redemption price (at a month old you shall redeem them) you shall fix at five shekels in silver, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, which is twenty gerahs.
    o There is a Big deal. A whole ceremony here…. A priest, descendant of Aaron, asks the mom if she has had any babies before, then asks the dad if he is redeeming the baby boy… then the dad gives the money, then the priest declares the baby redeemed….etc.
    o NOW,,,, UNDER THE JESUS ON EVERY PAGE….
    o LUKE 2:27 And he came in the Spirit into the temple, and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him according to the custom of the Law,

    Exo 13:16 And it shall be for a token upon thine hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes: for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.

    Pillars of Cloud and Fire

    Exo 13:17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt:
    Exo 13:18 But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt.
    Exo 13:19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you.

    CSB: God was doing exactly what Joseph had said he would do 430 years before. Genesis 50:24-25.

    Exo 13:20 And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness.
    Exo 13:21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:
    Exo 13:22 He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.

    CSB: The Lord had promised to accompany Moses as he confronted Pharaoh (3:12 and 4:12-15). Now he signified his presence by means of a pillar of cloud and pillar of fire. Sometimes it would descend and show that the Lord was talking with Moses, even other people heard about it.
    o Num 14:14 and they will tell the inhabitants of this land. They have heard that you, O LORD, are in the midst of this people. For you, O LORD, are seen face to face, and your cloud stands over them and you go before them, in a pillar of cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night.



    Chapter 14

    Exo 14:1 Then the LORD said to Moses,
    Exo 14:2 “Tell the people of Israel to turn back and encamp in front of Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, in front of Baal-zephon; you shall encamp facing it, by the sea.

    CSB NOTES:
    • The Lord led the Israelites to where they could be trapped between the sea and the Egyptian army.
    • Pihahiroth means “mouth of the canal”.
    • Migdol means “tower” or “watchtower”.
    • Baal-zephon means “Lord of the North”…. Incorporates the name of a Canaanite god important to seafarers.
    o JOHN GILL disagrees with the CSB NOTES here…. Gill says Baal-zephon was another place with a watchtower, which garded the mouth of the valley. (Adam… maybe the two match somehow? Maybe this watch tower had been given the name of a Canaanite god, somehow useful to the Canaanites?)

    Exo 14:3 For Pharaoh will say of the people of Israel, ‘They are wandering in the land; the wilderness has shut them in.’

    o CSB: Pharaoh’s assumption that the Israelites were lost grew from his low opinion of them and their God. (verse 5:2 Pharaoh said “who is this Lord that I should obey”). He was not counting on the Lord’s planning.

    Exo 14:4 And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and he will pursue them, and I will get glory over Pharaoh and all his host, and the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD.” And they did so.

    o CSB: The Lord will receive GLORY by Pharaoh’s refusal to give glory to the Lord.

    Exo 14:5 When the king of Egypt was told that the people had fled, the mind of Pharaoh and his servants was changed toward the people, and they said, “What is this we have done, that we have let Israel go from serving us?”

    Exo 14:6 So he made ready his chariot and took his army with him,
    Exo 14:7 and took six hundred chosen chariots and all the other chariots of Egypt with officers over all of them.

    o CSB snips: The Magicians had failed, but up to this point, the Egyptian Army had not had an opportunity to act. With the Hebrews wandering around and trapped, maybe some servants, livestock or wealth could be recovered or even destroyed.

    o It is important to note that history proves that the Egyptian chariots were a symbol of power and struck fear in Egyptian opponents. These chariots were certainly meant to strike fear in the heart of the Israel nation.

    Exo 14:8 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued the people of Israel while the people of Israel were going out defiantly.

    o CSB: going out defiantly: Numbers 33:3 explains this better:
    o Num 33:3 They set out from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month. On the day after the Passover, the people of Israel went out triumphantly in the sight of all the Egyptians,
    o Having been urged to leave Egypt, they had received valuables to take with them, and they were gladly going, they had no reason to fear (yet); they had no reason to look over their shoulder.

    Exo 14:9 The Egyptians pursued them, all Pharaoh’s horses and chariots and his horsemen and his army, and overtook them encamped at the sea, by Pi-hahiroth, in front of Baal-zephon.

    Exo 14:10 When Pharaoh drew near, the people of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians were marching after them, and they feared greatly. And the people of Israel cried out to the LORD.

    • Note: one minute “going out triumphantly”, the next minute, sheer terror. DOES THIS VERSE TEACH US ANYTHING?

     Don’t get too cocky. Don’t take your eyes off the Lord, and His plans for you.

    Exo 14:11 They said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the wilderness? What have you done to us in bringing us out of Egypt?

    o SARCASM…. Yes, this is sarcasm in the bible. The Egyptians had huge grave sites, filled with treasury and possessions. The Hebrews might have even had to help dig the grave sites.
    o They considered Moses as the cause for their immediate problem.

    Exo 14:12 Is not this what we said to you in Egypt: ‘Leave us alone that we may serve the Egyptians’? For it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.”

    Exo 14:13 And Moses said to the people, “Fear not, stand firm, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will work for you today. For the Egyptians whom you see today, you shall never see again.

    o Moses gave no credit for himself, but gave all credit to what the Lord was going to do.
    o FEAR NOT: used numerous times in the bible
    o A word from the Lord to His people; an affirmation of confidence before battle (Numbers; Deuteronomy; Joshua; 2 Chronicles; Nehemiah).
    o SALVATION:
    o “saved”. Military term, salvation took the form of victory and rescue (Deuteronomy; Judges; 2 Kings; Psalms).

    Exo 14:14 The LORD will fight for you, and you have only to be silent.”

    o Considering the fact that the Hebrew nation panicked in verses 10, 11, 12…. Now Moses encourages the nation in verses 13 and 14. What are your thoughts here?
    o Shouldn’t have been necessary, the nation shouldn’t have panicked in the first place
    o The Lord will provide leaders for us in our weakened, sinful flesh. He has provided our ultimate Leader, Jesus Christ. Moses is a Type of Christ in these verses.

    Exo 14:15 The LORD said to Moses, “Why do you cry to me? Tell the people of Israel to go forward.

     JOHN GILL: The Lord was not displeased with him, but he had other work for him to do, and he had no need to pray any longer, God had heard him, and would save him and his people:

    Exo 14:16 Lift up your staff, and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it, that the people of Israel may go through the sea on dry ground.

    o Here in verse 16, and again in verse 26, God had Moses instructed Moses to provide VISIBLE SIGNS (stretch out your hand, lift your staff) to unleash his miraculous power. Why?
    o ADAM CLARKE: Neither Moses nor his rod could be any effective instrument in a work which could be accomplished only by the omnipotence of God; but it was necessary that he should LIFT UP THE ROD, in order that he might have credit in the sight of the Israelites, and that they might see that God had chosen him to be the instrument of their deliverance.

    Exo 14:17 And I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they shall go in after them, and I will get glory over Pharaoh and all his host, his chariots, and his horsemen.
    Exo 14:18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten glory over Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”

    o CSB: “The Egyptians will know that I am the Lord” occurs here for the third time.”

    Exo 14:19 Then the angel of God who was going before the host of Israel moved and went behind them, and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them,

    o To protect them from the Egyptian army. God divided the nation of Israel and the nation of Egypt, thus the cloud prevented a clash between the two forces.

    Exo 14:20 coming between the host of Egypt and the host of Israel. And there was the cloud and the darkness. And it lit up the night without one coming near the other all night.

    o “And it lit up the night, without one coming up near the other all night.”
    o THOUGHTS? WHAT DO YOU THINK THE EGYPTIAN ARMY WAS THINKING AT THIS POINT? THEY OBVIOUSLY SEE THE FORCE OF GOD HERE RIGHT? AND IF THEY DON’T BELIEVE IN GOD, THEY SEE AN UNNATURAL “SOMETHING” PROTECTING THE ISREAELITES, RIGHT?

    Exo 14:21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the LORD drove the sea back by a strong east wind all night and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
    Exo 14:22 And the people of Israel went into the midst of the sea on dry ground, the waters being a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.

    o Wall to them on their right hand and on their left: forced the Egyptians to follow straight ahead and protected the Israelites from a flanking attack.

    Exo 14:23 The Egyptians pursued and went in after them into the midst of the sea, all Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.
    Exo 14:24 And in the morning watch the LORD in the pillar of fire and of cloud looked down on the Egyptian forces and threw the Egyptian forces into a panic,

    o Threw the Egyptian forces into a panic. God confuses the enemy a lot in the bible… Joshua; 1 Samuel.

    Exo 14:25 clogging their chariot wheels so that they drove heavily. And the Egyptians said, “Let us flee from before Israel, for the LORD fights for them against the Egyptians.”

    o About time: the Egyptians finally agree that the Lord is in battle for the Israelites.

    Exo 14:26 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the water may come back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.”
    Exo 14:27 So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its normal course when the morning appeared. And as the Egyptians fled into it, the LORD threw the Egyptians into the midst of the sea.
    Exo 14:28 The waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen; of all the host of Pharaoh that had followed them into the sea, not one of them remained.

    o CSB: Parallels exist between the plague of locusts and the overthrow of the Egyptians. It was no more difficult for the Lord to defeat Pharaoh and his army than to dispense with a horde of insects.
    o WHAT A MIGHTY GOD WE SERVE RIGHT? WE HAVE STORIES OF AWESOME POWER, STRENGTH, PROTECTION; SOVEREIGNITY….. but we of little faith…. Do we remember this stuff in our daily lives? As we have battle with “this world”, do we remember to call upon the same God who did all this for the nation of Israel? Same God right?

    Exo 14:29 But the people of Israel walked on dry ground through the sea, the waters being a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.
    Exo 14:30 Thus the LORD saved Israel that day from the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore.
    Exo 14:31 Israel saw the great power that the LORD used against the Egyptians, so the people feared the LORD, and they believed in the LORD and in his servant Moses.

    o CSB: Verses 29 to 31 summarize the “completeness” of the Lord’s victory by using many terms that have been used earlier. Terms like “great power” was literally “hand”, like we have heard all through Exodus.
    o CSB: The people feared the Lord: this was what Pharaoh ad failed to do….
    o CSB: servant Moses. It accords Moses the highest of titles in the hierarchy of the Lord’s society and is the one by which Moses was called many times (Numbers; Deuteronomy; Joshua; Geneses; 2 Samuel; Isaiah; Romans; Revelation).

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